Table 1

 Characteristics of study participants, Honolulu Heart Program and Honolulu Asia Aging Study, 1965–68 (exam I) and 1991–93 (exam IV)

Exam I
    Age (years)352246–6852.052.64.7
    BMI (kg/m2)352014.9–39.923.923.92.9
    Physical activity350525.6–65.531.832.84.7
    Coffee intake (4 oz cup portions)35220–383.03.43.2
    Glucose (mg/dl)351049–671142.0151.147.7
    Alcohol intake (g/month)35180–6055.535.6340.1602.9
    Smoking (pack-years)35070–14718.021.422.9
    Hand-grip strength (kg)351911–6339.039.66.1
Exam IV
    Age (years)352271–9377.077.74.6
    BMI (kg/m2)345312.3–39.323.523.43.2
    CASI score35200–10086.983.513.9
    Education (years)35221–2410.010.53.2
    Haemoglobin (g/dl)33805.9–20.414.914.91.4
    Hand-grip strength (kg)35220–5530.030.36.8
    Decline in hand-grip strength (kg) between exams I and IV3519−12 to 389.09.35.8
    Yes, current: under medical care2236.5
    Yes, current: not under medical care2617.6
    Yes, present only in the past792.3
Fracture of forearm%