Table 3

 Examples of push factors

Push factor
Structural changeContinuing technological changes, increased competition as the labour market creates a pressure in firms to adapt to new circumstances forces elderly and/or disabled workers from work
Business cycles/unemploymentDuring periods with low unemployment rates larger numbers of potential disability beneficiaries are active in paid work
Occupation/social classCertain skills and competences become obsolete in changing labour markets; occupational characteristics expose employees to health hazards
Work environmentPhysical and psychosocial work environment are important sources of ill health
Recruitment policiesNegative/stereotypical attitudes towards not fully fit workers increases the risk of exclusion of disabled workers