Table 1

 Summary information on the 14 studies that fulfilled all three inclusion criteria20–37

ReferenceCountrySettingOutcome definitionnInclusion timeFollow up timeAnalysisNo. of factorsStudy design
Abenhaim et al20CANWorkers’ comp⩾180 days off work1848Sickness absence <1 week2 yearsMultivariate logistic regression6Retrospective
Andersson et al21SWEGeneral populationSickness absence940Start sickness absence22 yearsKaplan-Meier curves2Retrospective
Burdorf et al22NLOccupationalSickness absence222Start sickness absence2 yearsMultivariate Cox regression1Prospective
Butterfield et al23USAWorkers’ compAbsenteeism days340Claim opening, >6 physician visits3 years max.Multiple linear regression7Retrospective
Fransen et al24NZInsurance settingCompensation status at 3 months854After file claim and <2 weeks3 monthsMultivariate logistic regression35Prospective
Gatchel et al25,26USAOccupational/orthopaedic clinicReturn to work421<6 weeks since injury1 yearStepwise logistic regression14Prospective
Gluck et al and Oleinick et al27,28USAWork injury databaseReturn to work8628Start of claim8 weeksMultivariate Cox regression9Retrospective
Goertz29USAWork comp/occ physicianTime loss from work207<30 days of onset6 monthsANOVA 
 >Multivariate regression9Retrospective
Hagen and Thune30NORInsurance settingDuration of work incapacity89190After 2 weeks1 yearWilcoxon rank sum test/Kruskal Wallis3Retrospective
Dasinger et al and Krause et al31,32USAWorkers’ compDuration of work disability4331 day of temporary disability within 14 days of injury1–4 yearsMultivariate Cox regression18Retrospective
Nordin et al33USAClinical settingReturn to work162Within 1 week of onset of pain?Multiple logistic regression13Prospective
Schultz et al34CANWorkers’ compOccupational disability192Sub acute phase (4–6 weeks)3 monthsStepwise logistic regression33Prospective
van der Weide et al35,36NLWorkers/occ physicianTime to RTW120>10 days of sickness absence12 monthsMultivariate Cox regression25Prospective
van Doorn37NLInsurance settingTime loss from work1119<72 hours after onset of disability13 yearsMultivariate Cox regression5Retrospective