Table 2

Garment workers’ mortality results (US referent rates); update of cohort to 1998†

Underlying cause of death (ICD codes)‡Original study period (1955–82)Updated period (1983–98)Total study period (1955–98)
OBSSMR95% CIOBSSMR95% CIOBSSMR95% CI
OBS, observed number of deaths; SMR, standardised mortality ratio; CI, confidence interval; CA, cancer.
†Results for all race/sex groups combined.
‡International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision.
§Includes 11 observed deaths in total study period with missing death certificates.
*95% CI excludes the null value (1.0).
**99% CI excludes the null value (1.0).
All deaths6350.80**0.74 to 0.8615710.980.93 to 1.0322060.92**0.88 to 0.96
All cancers (140–208)1930.86*0.74 to 0.984150.910.83 to 1.006080.89**0.82 to 0.97
Buccal and pharyngeal CA (140–149)61.580.58 to 3.4520.310.04 to 1.1480.790.34 to 1.55
    Buccal cavity (142–145)43.530.96 to 9.0200.000.00 to 1.9841.330.36 to 3.41
    Pharynx (146–149)21.150.14 to 4.1510.340.01 to 1.8730.640.13 to 1.86
All digestive CA (150–159)340.68*0.47 to 0.95820.810.65 to 1.011160.77**0.63 to 0.92
    Oesophagus (150)20.780.09 to 2.8240.630.17 to 1.6260.680.25 to 1.47
    Stomach (151)40.630.17 to 1.6190.910.41 to 1.72130.800.42 to 1.36
    Colon (152–153)180.850.50 to 1.34310.740.50 to 1.05490.770.57 to 1.02
    Rectal (154)10.210.01 to 1.1960.890.32 to 1.9370.610.25 to 1.26
    Liver and biliary (155–156)30.590.12 to 1.74110.990.49 to 1.77140.870.47 to 1.45
    Pancreas (157)60.640.23 to 1.39200.870.53 to 1.35260.810.53 to 1.18
All respiratory CA (160–165)391.030.73 to 1.411130.960.79 to 1.151520.980.83 to 1.14
    Larynx (161)00.000.00 to 3.3931.300.27 to 3.8130.880.18 to 2.59
    Trachea, bronchus, and lung (162)391.080.77 to 1.481080.940.77 to 1.141470.980.82 to 1.15
    Other respiratory (160, 163–165)00.000.00 to 5.6322.010.24 to 7.2521.210.15 to 4.37
Breast CA (174–175)330.70*0.48 to 0.98680.920.71 to 1.161010.830.68 to 1.01
Female genital CA (179–184)250.800.52 to 1.18310.750.51 to 1.07560.770.58 to 1.01
Male genital CA (185–187)10.480.01 to 2.68122.22*1.15 to 3.89131.740.93 to 2.98
    Prostate CA (185)00.000.00 to 2.15112.10*1.05 to 3.76111.580.79 to 2.83
    Other male genital CA (186–187)12.790.07 to 15.5116.410.16 to 35.5923.890.47 to 14.04
All urinary CA (188–189)50.830.27 to 1.9470.490.20 to 1.01120.590.30 to 1.03
    Kidney (189.0–189.2)20.570.07 to 2.0430.360.07 to 1.0650.42*0.14 to 0.99
    Bladder and other (188, 189.3–189.9)31.200.25 to 3.5140.660.18 to 1.6970.820.33 to 1.69
All other and unspecified site CA (170–173, 190–199)301.100.74 to 1.57611.130.87 to 1.46911.120.90 to 1.38
    Brain CA (191, 192)50.720.23 to 1.69141.340.73 to 2.24191.090.66 to 1.71
    Thyroid CA (193)11.560.04 to 8.6710.920.02 to 5.1121.160.14 to 4.18
    Connective and soft tissue (171)43.140.86 to 8.0330.940.19 to 2.7671.570.63 to 3.24
    Other/unspecified site CA (194–199)181.320.78 to 2.09361.130.79 to 1.57541.190.89 to 1.55
All lymphatic and haematopoietic CA (200–208)201.010.62 to 1.56390.960.68 to 1.31590.970.74 to 1.26
    Lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma (200)20.500.06 to 1.7931.630.34 to 4.7850.850.28 to 1.99
    Hodgkin’s disease (201)10.410.01 to 2.3010.810.02 to 4.5120.550.07 to 1.98
    Leukaemia (204–208)91.140.52 to 2.17151.050.59 to 1.74241.090.70 to 1.62
    Other lymphatic and haematopoietic CA (202–203)81.460.63 to 2.87200.850.52 to 1.32280.970.64 to 1.40
Benign and unspecified neoplasms (210–239)41.000.27 to 2.5661.020.37 to 2.22101.010.48 to 1.86
Tuberculosis (010–018)10.450.01 to 2.4921.600.19 to 5.7730.860.18 to 2.52
Diabetes mellitus (250)40.23**0.06 to 0.60290.65*0.43 to 0.93330.53**0.37 to 0.75
Diseases of the blood (280–289)10.300.01 to 1.6991.290.59 to 2.45100.980.47 to 1.79
Mental disorders (290–319)10.17*0.00 to 0.97231.080.68 to 1.61240.890.57 to 1.32
Non-malignant nervous system disease (320–389)30.27*0.06 to 0.80270.850.56 to 1.24300.710.48 to 1.01
Heart disease (390–398, 402, 404, 410–414, 420–429)1790.81**0.69 to 0.935131.040.95 to 1.136920.960.89 to 1.04
    Ischaemic heart disease (410–414)1450.83*0.70 to 0.983331.010.90 to 1.124780.950.86 to 1.03
    Cardiomyopathy, conductive disorders, and other heart diseases (420–423, 425–428, 429.2–429.9)251.030.67 to 1.531501.19*1.01 to 1.401751.17*1.00 to 1.36
Other circulatory disease (401, 403, 405, 415–417, 430–459)610.790.60 to 1.011671.020.87 to 1.192280.950.83 to 1.08
Non-malignant respiratory disease (460–519)280.750.50 to 1.081481.090.92 to 1.281761.010.87 to 1.18
    Chronic and unspecified bronchitis (490–491)42.510.68 to 6.4320.760.09 to 2.7661.420.52 to 3.10
    Emphysema (492)81.500.65 to 2.96120.940.49 to 1.65201.110.68 to 1.71
    Asthma (493)00.000.00 to 1.5581.500.65 to 2.9681.040.45 to 2.05
    Pneumoconiosis and other respiratory disease (470–478, 494–519)50.42*0.14 to 0.98881.29*1.03 to 1.58931.160.93 to 1.42
Non-malignant digestive disease (520–579)320.710.49 to 1.00510.790.59 to 1.04830.76*0.60 to 0.94
    Cirrhosis of the liver (571)180.730.44 to 1.16130.53*0.28 to 0.90310.63**0.43 to 0.89
Non-malignant genitourinary disease (580–629)121.020.53 to 1.78331.170.80 to 1.64451.120.82 to 1.50
    Acute renal failure (580, 581, 584)22.320.28 to 8.3751.950.63 to 4.5772.050.82 to 4.22
    Chronic renal failure (582, 583, 585–587)10.210.01 to 1.19161.240.71 to 2.01170.970.56 to 1.55
Non-malignant skin disease (680–709)10.800.02 to 4.4731.320.27 to 3.8541.140.31 to 2.90
Non-malignant musculoskeletal disease (710–739)30.740.15 to 2.1891.000.46 to 1.91120.920.48 to 1.61
Ill defined conditions (780–796, 798–799)50.450.15 to 1.0580.560.24 to 1.10130.51*0.27 to 0.88
Accidents (E800–E949)520.890.67 to 1.17481.020.75 to 1.361000.950.77 to 1.16
Violence (E950–E978)350.950.66 to 1.32281.130.75 to 1.63631.020.78 to 1.31
Other and unknown causes §201.050.64 to 1.63520.940.70 to 1.23720.970.76 to 1.22