Table 5

 Association of Gulf War veterans’ total number of health symptoms with reported Gulf War exposures and experiences

Gulf War exposureTotal number of health symptoms
nMean(SD)Adj ratio of means*95% CI
*Ratios of means are adjusted for service type, rank, age (<20, 20–24, 25–34, ⩾35 years), education, and marital status by negative binomial regression.
†Dose-response per unit increase in Military Service Experience questionnaire score (p<0.001).
‡170 subjects said they took pyridostigmine bromide tablets but did not know how many.
§Dose-response per categorical increase in number of pyridostigmine bromide tablets taken (p<0.001), number of days of anti-malarial tablets taken (p = 0.09), and number of days of anti-biological warfare tablets taken (p<0.001).
Deployment completed before air war on 17 January 1991
    No108915.1(11.4)1.11.0 to 1.2
MSE questionnaire score
    5–841411.5(8.5)1.31.2 to 1.5
    9–1231615.8(10.1)1.81.6 to 2.0
    >1236822.6(12.5)2.52.3 to 2.8
    Dose-response†1.071.06 to 1.07
Pyridostigmine bromide
    Any‡72615.8(11.7)1.41.2 to 1.5
        1–80 tablets taken15214.3(11.6)1.31.1 to 1.5
        81–180 tablets taken15616.9(12.0)1.41.2 to 1.6
        >180 tablets taken14816.9(12.5)1.41.2 to 1.7
    Dose-response§1.11.1 to 1.2
    Don’t know31816.3(11.6)1.41.2 to 1.6
    Any58614.8(11.6)1.11.0 to 1.2
        1–30 days of tablets taken19113.0(10.7)1.00.8 to 1.1
        31–90 days of tablets taken13013.2(10.7)1.00.8 to 1.2
        >90 days of tablets taken10815.8(10.7)1.21.0 to 1.4
    Dose-response§1.01.0 to 1.1
    Don’t know54315.6(11.1)1.11.0 to 1.2
Anti-biological warfare tablets
    Any8119.4(13.6)1.61.4 to 1.9
        1–30 days of tablets taken2516.4(15.7)1.40.9 to 2.0
        31–90 days of tablets taken2217.8(8.4)1.61.3 to 2.1
        >90 days of tablets taken1222.8(12.7)1.91.4 to 2.5
    Dose-response§1.31.2 to 1.4
    Don’t know79216.5(11.3)1.41.3 to 1.5
    Yes36618.5(12.5)1.31.2 to 1.4
Insect repellents
    Yes50316.0(11.4)1.21.1 to 1.3
Chemical weapons area
    Yes15219.4(13.0)1.31.2 to 1.5
Depleted uranium
    Yes21814.2(10.0)1.00.9 to 1.1