Table 1

Abstracted risk estimates and study information from the original studies relating occupation related exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer

ReferenceExposure groupGeographical locationNo. of cases in occupationSpecified measureEstimator of relative risk95% CI
Studies that were excluded from the meta-analyses are italicised. Reasons for exclusion were: *no prostate cancer cases in the exposed cohort; †no data reported for prostate cancer because of not meeting the requiring criteria of the original papers authors; ‡manufacturing workers; §less than five cases reported; ¶accidentally exposed group; **redundant study. If no risk estimator is available, the ratio of observed over expected cases (O/E) is given. NP, data not presented.
Cohort studies (SMR, SIR)
    Acquavella et al, 1996* [20]Alachlor manufacturing workersMuscatine, Iowa0SMR0/0.2O/E
    Andersen et al, 1999 [21]FarmersDenmark1277SIR0.890.84 to 0.94
Norway24740.990.95 to 1.03
Finland27820.970.93 to 1.01
Sweden30840.950.92 to 0.98
Total96170.960.94 to 0.98
    Aronson et al, 1999† [22]FarmersCanada<5Relative riskNPNP
    Becher et al, 1996‡ [23]Workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides and dioxinsGermany9SMR1.250.573 to 2.375
    Burns et al, 2001‡ [24]Chemical workers potentially exposed to 2,4-DMidland, Michigan7SMR1.340.54 to 2.77
    Cantor and Silberman, 1999  [25]Aerial pesticide applicatorsUSA21SMR1.400.87 to 2.14
    de Jong et al, 1997§ [26]Workers exposed to dieldrin and aldrinNetherlands1SMR0.410.01 to 2.29
    Dich and Wiklund, 1998 [27]Pesticide applicatorsSweden401SIR1.131.02 to 1.24
    Firth et al, 1996† [28]FarmersNew Zealand<5SIRNPNP
Agricultural workers
    Fleming et al, 1999a [29]Pesticide applicatorsFlorida353SIR1.911.72 to 2.13
    Fleming et al, 1999b [30]Pesticide applicatorsFlorida64SMR2.381.83 to 3.04
    Gambini et al, 1997 [31]Rice growersNovara province, Italy19SMR0.9580.577 to 1.496
    Hooiveld et al, 1998§ [32]Workers exposed to phenoxyacetic acid herbicides in a chemical factoryNetherlands4SMR2.20.6 to 5.7
    Kogevinas et al, 1997‡ [33]Workers exposed to phenoxyacetic acid herbicidesInternational68SMR1.10.85 to 1.39
    Kristensen et al, 1996** [34]Subjects engaged in agricultural activities: farmersNorway129SIR0.900.75 to 1.07
    Leet et al, 1996*‡ [35]Alachlor manufacturing workersMuscatine, Iowa0SIR0/0.29O/E
    Lynge, 1998‡ [36]Danish phenoxy herbicide workersDenmark15SIR1.000.6 to 1.7
    Olsen et al, 1995§ [37]Employees exposed to 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropaneMichigan2SMR1.960.24 to 7.08
    Ott and Zober, 1996¶ [38]Accidentally TCDD exposed malesLudwigshafen, Germany4SIR1.10.3 to 2.8
0SMR0.00.0 to 1.9
    Parker et al, 1999 [39]FarmersUSA30Relative risk1.50.9 to 2.5
    Pukkala and Notkola, 1997**  [40]FarmersFinland2212SIR0.960.92 to 1.00
    Ramlow et al, 1996§ [41]Pentachlorophenol manufacturing workersMichigan3SMR0.860.18 to 2.50
    Sathiakumar et al, 1996* [42]Triazine manufacturing workersAlabama, Louisiana, USA0SMR0/1.8O/E
    Settimi et al, 1998§ [43]Greenhouse ownersSanta Marinella, Italy1SMR0.80.02 to 4.456
    Sharma-Wagner et al, 2000  [44]Occupation: farmers, fisherman and hunterSweden7826SIR1.041.02 to 1.10
    Sperati et al, 1999 [45]Farmers, licensed pesticide usersViterbo, Italy5SMR0.80.26 to 1.86
    Thomas et al, 1996§ [46]Pest control officersEngland and Wales2SMR0.400.05 to 1.43
    Wesseling et al, 1996 [47]Workers (with pesticide exposure) on the payrolls of banana companiesCosta Rica20SIR0.610.37 to 0.95
    Wiklund and Dich, 1995** [48]FarmersSweden3987SIR0.930.9 to 0.96
    Zahm, 1997§ [49]Pesticide applicators and others employees of a lawn care serviceOhio and 46 states and 3 Canadian provinces2SMR2.770.31 to 10.00
    Zhong and Rafnsson, 1996 [50]Pesticide usersIceland10SIR0.700.33 to 1.29
PMR studies
    Buxton et al, 1999 [51]Occupation: farmers & farm managersCanada; British Columbia967PMR1.121.05 to 1.20
    Cerhan et al, 1998 [52]FarmersIowa, USA1152PMR1.261.19 to 1.33
    Inskip et al, 1996 [53]FarmersEngland and Wales1361PMR1.121.06 to 1.18
    Kross et al, 1996 [54]Golf course superintendentsUSA18PMR2.931.87 to 4.60
Case-control studies
    Andersson et al, 1996 [55]FarmersSweden11OR0.60.3 to 1.2
    Aronson et al, 1996 [56]Occupation: farmers & horticulturistsCanada; Quebec, Montreal33OR1.180.77 to 1.81
    Band et al, 1999 [57]Occupation: farming, horticultural and animal husbandry (usual occupation)British Columbia182OR1.431.161 to 1.761
    Ewings and Bowie, 1996 [58]Farm/farm workerUK; Somerset and East Devon36OR0.740.46 to 1.18
    Hoque et al, 1998¶ [59]Accidentally exposed to PBB and PCBMichigan1Adjusted OR (ppb>50)0.570.06 to 5.13
    Krstev et al, 1998a [60]Occupation: farm workersUSA (24 states)192mortality OR0.70.6 to 0.9
    Krstev et al, 1998b [61]Occupation: general farmersUSA (three areas)30incidence OR2.171.18 to 3.98
    van der Gulden et al, 1995 [62]Occupation: farmer/ownerNetherlands30OR0.780.51 to 1.18
farm workers62.740.94 to 7.98