Table 3

Examples of molecular biomarkers measured in occupational health

Molecular biomarkersApplicationStudy population
Exposure marker
PAH-DNA adductWorkplace and community exposures and exposure to cigarette smoke, and risk of lung cancerFoundry workers 
 Coke oven workers 
 General community in industrial areas
Early effect markers
p53 tumour suppressor gene or its 
 protein productSpecific fingerprint mutation in certain gene codon and risk of liver, breast, lung, and oesophageal cancerRadon exposed miners, vinyl chloride monomer workers 
 General population with environmental exposure to aflatoxin B1
H-ras and K-ras gene or its protein 
 productIncreased risk of various cancers, e.g. lung, liver, and bladderFirefighters, hazardous waste workers, foundry workers, vinyl chloride monomer workers
Host susceptibility markers
CYP1A1 polymorphismIncreased risk of lung cancer with exposure to benzo[a]pyreneFoundry workers
NAT2 polymorphismIncreased risk of bladder cancerWorkers exposed to arylamine and hydrazine