Box 1


ToxicologyCausal agent
Dose–effect/response data
Toxicity and disease mechanisms
Candidate biomarkers for biological monitoring
EpidemiologyCausal agent/process
Exposure–effect/response data
Validation of biomarkers for biological monitoring
Occupational medicineClinical observation of disease from routine or specific medical surveillance
Occupational hygieneExposure measurements in comparison to control limits
Unions/workersReports of complaints or ill health among workers