Table 1

Adjusted RRs* (95% CI) for seeking care because of neck or shoulder pain associated with different factors when comparing long term† and short term‡ exposure, respectively, with long term unexposed subjects, by sex

Women: 210 cases, 698 controlsMen: 100 cases, 579 controls
Work related factorsCasesControlsCasesControlsRR*†95% CICasesControlsRR*‡95% CICasesControlsCasesControlsRR*†95% CICasesControlsRR*‡95% CI
*Adjusted for age (5 year age groups), earlier neck or shoulder disorders, irregular working hours, and socioeconomic group; †defined as current exposure and exposure 5 years ago to physical factors, and exposure during a 5 year period to psychosocial factors; ‡defined as current exposure but no exposure to the physical factors 5 years ago, and as an increase in level of exposure to the psychosocial factors within the past 5 year period, the number of subjects does not add up to the total, as some subjects had been exposed 5 years ago but were not currently exposed; §(Borg23 1970); reports of exposure >1 day/week, alternatives, hardly ever/never, 1–3 days/month, 1 day/week, 2–4 days/week, every working day; **no analysis made, as <five cases or controls were exposed to the factor.
High perceived workload ≥14 on the RPE scale§112465441061.61.0 to 2.628472.61.4 to 4.954372191220.70.4 to 1.38331.10.4 to 2.7
Sitting >75% of the working day16254124801.00.6 to 1.815242.61.2 to 5.37244812850.70.3 to 1.411263.41.5 to 7.6
VDT work >50% of the working day1776098351.00.4 to 2.216312.11.0 to 4.194528221**219**
Work with vibrating tools >5% of the day1906437310.80.3 to 1.9413**41296502261.60.9 to 2.76211.90.6 to 5.5
Work with hands above shoulder >1/2 h/day¶148555391091.30.8 to 2.011113.41.3 to 8.869428221050.90.5 to 1.5219**
Work requiring frequent bending and twisting¶96385912451.30.9 to 1.89231.40.5 to 3.446318462171.20.7 to 1.95142.10.6 to 6.9
Frequent hand or finger movements at work¶91401952381.81.2 to 2.612232.61.0 to 6.052340391981.20.7 to 1.95241.40.4 to 3.7
Lifting and carrying 1–15 kg¶92342892871.20.8 to 1.815232.61.1 to 5.831203583150.90.5 to 1.6421**
Lifting and carrying >15 kg¶152525381191.00.6 to 1.56221.00.3 to 2.541309442101.40.8 to 2.4317**
No participation in work planning128416561170.90.6 to 1.46270.60.2 to 1.559371251221.20.7 to 2.25112.90.8 to 9.4
No opportunities to get or use new knowledge1755669360.70.3 to 1.6663.71.1 to 12.8814705251.30.4 to 3.428**
No support from colleagues or superiors15454813381.20.6 to 2.4310**78432226**45**
Hindrance at work**113422521141.51.0 to 2.2414**64373231041.20.7 to 2.1413**
75% Of the spare time used for housework15653432901.10.6 to 1.713361.60.8 to 3.295533427**017**