Table 2

Number of exposed subjects (cases/controls), odds ratios (OR)†, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mothers’ and fathers’ occupational groups at periconception

Occupational groupsDiagnostic groupMothersFathers
Cases/controlsOR(95% CI)Cases/controlsOR(95% CI)
†Unmatched analysis using all controls with adjustment for single year of age, sex, and region of residence.
‡Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
§Central nervous system tumours.
¶Excludes leukaemia and CNS tumours.
††Skin/epidermal exposure to hydrocarbons.
*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.
Ionising radiation
Ionising radiationLeukaemia1/70.63(0.08 to 5.15)3/131.03(0.29 to 3.65)
ALL‡1/70.76(0.09 to 6.19)3/131.25(0.35 to 4.40)
CNS§1/71.53(0.19 to 12.40)1/130.82(0.11 to 6.32)
Other¶0/73/131.18(0.34 to 4.19)
Chemicals
AgrochemicalsLeukaemia5/270.81(0.31 to 2.12)36/1850.83(0.58 to 1.19)
ALL‡5/270.97(0.37 to 2.52)31/1850.85(0.58 to 1.24)
CNS§3/271.26(0.38 to 4.17)13/1850.77(0.44 to 1.36)
Other¶5/271.02(0.39 to 2.65)33/1850.91(0.64 to 1.36)
Dermal hydrocarbons††Leukaemia17/352.20(1.23 to 3.95)**104/4790.94(0.76 to 1.18)
ALL‡14/352.16(1.16 to 4.02)*88/4790.96(0.76 to 1.21)
CNS§6/351.85(0.77 to 4.41)46/4791.03(0.75 to 1.41)
Other¶8/351.23(0.57 to 2.66)74/4790.80(0.62 to 1.03)
DrivingLeukaemia5/141.48(0.53 to 4.13)121/3891.36(1.10 to 1.68)**
ALL‡5/141.74(0.63 to 4.85)95/3891.26(1.00 to 1.59)*
CNS§1/140.85(0.11 to 6.50)36/3891.04(0.73 to 1.48)
Other¶083/3891.11(0.87 to 1.42)
Exhaust fumesLeukaemia9/251.58(0.74 to 3.40)147/4851.33(1.09 to 1.61)**
ALL‡8/251.68(0.76 to 3.74)118/4851.26(1.02 to 1.56)*
CNS§3/251.33(0.40 to 4.42)47/4851.08(0.79 to 1.47)
Other¶2/250.43(0.10 to 1.82)103/4851.13(0.90 to 1.41)
Inhaled particulate hydrocarbonsLeukaemia6/122.28(0.85 to 6.08)115/3451.48(1.19 to 1.84)***
ALL‡5/122.26(0.79 to 6.45)93/3451.41(1.11 to 1.79)**
CNS§2/121.77(0.39 to 7.93)35/3451.13(0.79 to 1.61)
Other¶071/3451.09(0.84 to 1.42)
SolventsLeukaemia36/1421.13(0.78 to 1.64)78/3151.07(0.83 to 1.37)
ALL‡27/1421.00(0.66 to 1.51)64/3151.05(0.79 to 1.37)
CNS§16/1421.23(0.73 to 2.07)30/3151.04(0.73 to 1.57)
Other¶31/1421.19(0.81 to 1.77)69/3151.15(0.87 to 1.50)
Other occupational groups
AgricultureLeukaemia7/221.41(0.60 to 3.31)29/1400.90(0.60 to 1.34)
ALL‡7/221.68(0.72 to 3.95)25/1400.92(0.59 to 1.40)
CNS§3/221.55(0.46 to 5.19)9/1400.70(0.35 to 1.38)
Other¶5/221.24(0.47 to 3.29)24/1400.90(0.58 to 1.39)
AnimalsLeukaemia3/111.14(0.32 to 4.11)13/561.00(0.54 to 1.80)
ALL‡2/110.90(0.20 to 4.08)12/561.09(0.57 to 2.00)
CNS§0/112/560.40(0.10 to 1.64)
Other¶1/110.51(0.07 to 3.92)8/560.75(0.35 to 1.56)
Ceramics/glassLeukaemia3/81.68(0.45 to 6.37)7/152.19(0.84 to 5.05)
ALL‡2/81.29(0.27 to 6.10)4/151.51(0.47 to 4.27)
CNS§0/83/152.35(0.63 to 7.55)
Other¶3/81.97(0.52 to 7.46)4/151.46(0.46 to 4.16)
Coal dustLeukaemia0/010/321.38(0.68 to 2.82)
ALL‡0/09/321.50(0.71 to 3.15)
CNS§0/01/320.33(0.05 to 2.45)
Other¶0/05/320.79(0.31 to 2.05)
ConstructionLeukaemia0/189/3401.14(0.88 to 1.43)
ALL‡0/172/3401.09(0.82 to 1.39)
CNS§0/130/3400.92(0.67 to 1.43)
Other¶1/16.28(0.39 to 100)77/3401.20(0.94 to 1.57)
Electromagnetic fieldsLeukaemia86/4520.83(0.66 to 1.06)108/3741.23(1.00 to 1.55)
ALL‡74/4520.85(0.66 to 1.10)87/3741.16(0.93 to 1.50)
CNS§39/4520.95(0.67 to 1.32)35/3741.04(0.72 to 1.47)
Other¶72/4520.85(0.66 to 1.10)71/3741.00(0.78 to 1.31)
Increased temperatureLeukaemia0/02/81.07(0.23 to 5.04)
ALL‡0/02/81.27(0.27 to 5.97)
CNS§0/01/81.42(0.18 to 11.45)
Other¶1/02/81.30(0.28 to 6.20)
Leather workersLeukaemia4/131.43(0.46 to 4.39)2/81.04(0.22 to 4.92)
ALL‡3/131.31(0.37 to 4.63)2/81.23(0.26 to 5.80)
CNS§1/130.75(0.10 to 5.78)0
Other¶2/130.82(0.19 to 3.65)6/84.02(1.39 to 11.63)**
Medical/health careLeukaemia85/4650.78(0.61 to 0.98)*19/1180.70(0.43 to 1.14)
ALL‡73/4650.79(0.61 to 1.02)15/1180.66(0.38 to 1.13)
CNS§32/4650.77(0.53 to 1.12)10/1180.93(0.49 to 1.79)
Other¶73/4650.85(0.66 to 1.10)27/1181.22(0.80 to 1.86)
MetalLeukaemia10/123.68(1.59 to 8.55)**147/6900.91(0.76 to 1.10)
ALL‡9/123.91(1.64 to 9.32)**127/6900.95(0.78 to 1.16)
CNS§2/121.80(0.40 to 8.11)67/6901.07(0.82 to 1.40)
Other¶4/121.79(0.58 to 5.58)120/6900.89(0.72 to 1.09)
Metal (acid mists)Leukaemia0/03/53.19(0.62 to 10.95)
ALL‡0/03/53.80(0.74 to 13.09)
CNS§0/01/52.80(0.25 to 18.24)
Other¶0/04/53.90(1.13 to 15.82)
Metal fumesLeukaemia0/316/930.73(0.43 to 1.24)
ALL‡0/314/930.76(0.43 to 1.33)
CNS§1/33.55(0.37 to 34.21)9/931.08(0.54 to 2.15)
Other¶0/311/930.63(0.34 to 1.18)
Metal working (oil mists)Leukaemia0/010/510.86(0.43 to 1.67)
ALL‡0/09/510.92(0.44 to 1.84)
CNS§0/08/511.82(0.85 to 3.80)
Other¶0/05/510.51(0.20 to 1.27)
MiningLeukaemia0/012/381.48(0.73 to 2.69)
ALL‡0/010/381.50(0.70 to 2.84)
CNS§0/01/380.30(0.04 to 2.05)
Other¶0/07/380.98(0.24 to 2.11)
Outdoor workersLeukaemia6/261.01(0.42 to 2.48)100/4271.01(0.80 to 1.25)
ALL‡5/261.01(0.39 to 2.63)80/4270.96(0.74 to 1.21)
CNS§5/262.15(0.82 to 5.59)36/4270.94(0.69 to 1.38)
Other¶8/261.70(0.77 to 3.77)86/4271.06(0.85 to 1.37)
PaintsLeukaemia0/025/911.22(0.76 to 1.85)
ALL‡0/021/911.22(0.73 to 1.91)
CNS§0/012/911.50(0.79 to 2.66)
Other¶0/022/911.33(0.80 to 2.06)
Paper productionLeukaemia0/00/2
ALL‡0/00/2
CNS§0/01/24.85(0.44 to 53.72)
Other¶0/00/2
PlasticLeukaemia3/52.75(0.66 to 11.56)7/161.83(0.75 to 4.44)
ALL‡3/53.26(0.78 to 13.75)5/161.52(0.55 to 4.14)
CNS§0/51/160.73(0.10 to 5.57)
Other¶0/53/161.02(0.30 to 3.53)
PrintingLeukaemia10/291.58(0.77 to 3.27)13/650.87(0.48 to 1.59)
ALL‡7/291.32(0.58 to 3.03)10/650.81(0.41 to 1.57)
CNS§5/291.83(0.70 to 4.72)6/650.84(0.44 to 2.35)
Other¶4/290.74(0.26 to 2.10)10/650.79(0.41 to 1.56)
Rubber manufactureLeukaemia0/04/44.12(1.03 to 16.51)*
ALL‡0/04/44.80(1.20 to 19.28)*
CNS§0/00/4
Other¶1/00/4
Textile dustLeukaemia36/1361.17(0.80 to 1.69)11/580.83(0.43 to 1.58)
ALL‡31/1361.20(0.81 to 1.78)9/580.81(0.40 to 1.64)
CNS§11/1360.89(0.48 to 1.65)4/580.72(0.26 to 2.00)
Other¶45/1361.81(1.28 to 2.55) ***22/582.02(1.23 to 3.31)**
Wood dustLeukaemia½2.21(0.20 to 24.49)42/1611.08(0.77 to 1.54)
ALL‡½2.68(0.24 to 29.74)35/1611.10(0.76 to 1.60)
CNS§08/1610.46(0.22 to 0.99)*
Other¶½2.74(0.25 to 30.37)38/1611.27(0.89 to 1.82)