Table 1

Summary risk estimates for bladder cancer and foundry exposures

Study groupVariance based SRE*95% CI*Heterogeneity test p valuePooled observed/ expected estimate95% CI*
*SRE, summary risk estimate; CI, confidence interval; df, degrees of freedom.
†Number of observed cancers.
‡Excluding the results of Hansen.4
All studies
    Cohort1.220.92 to 1.62p=0.001 (8df)*1.17 [181]†1.01 to 1.35
    Surveillance1.111.04 to 1.19p=0.33 (10df)1.11 [838]1.04 to 1.19
    Case-control1.080.98 to 1.20p=0.10 (20df)
    Total group1.121.05 to 1.19p=0.06 (40df)1.12 [1019]1.05 to 1.19
    Cohort‡1.160.99 to 1.36p=0.90 (7df)1.14 [175]†0.98 to 1.32
    Total group‡1.111.05 to 1.17p=0.30 (39df)1.11 [1013]1.04 to 1.18
Studies with better quality exposure information
    Cohort1.230.89 to 1.69p=0.003 (5df)1.18 [152]1.00 to 1.38
    Surveillance1.110.99 to 1.24p=0.34 (9df)1.10 [328]0.98 to 1.23
    Case-control1.311.08 to 1.59p=0.38 (7df)
    Total group1.171.05 to 1.31p=0.02 (23df)1.12 [480]1.02 to 1.22
    Cohort ‡1.160.98 to 1.37p=0.66 (4df)1.14 [146]0.96 to 1.34
    Total group‡1.161.06 to 1.26p=0.45 (22df)1.11 [474]1.01 to 1.21
Large studies with better quality exposure information (standard error <0.3)
    Total group1.131.04 to 1.24p=0.25 (9df)1.10 [435]1.00 to 1.21
Total group results by control for smoking
    All studies, smoking control1.110.96 to 1.29p=0.07 (15df)
    Better studies, smoking control1.401.15 to 1.72p=0.78 (4df)
    Better studies, no smoking control1.461.19 to 1.77p=0.61 (4df)
Total group results for better exposure quality studies by outcome measure
    Mortality‡1.201.02 to 1.41p=0.54 (11df)1.17 [164]1.00 to 1.36
    Incidence1.141.04 to 1.26p=0.28 (10df)1.08 [310]0.96 to 1.21