Table 1

Modified mental health professional stress scale (PSS)

Subjects are asked to indicate on a four point scale how frequently they experienced such situations as stressful in the present department*
*0, does not apply to me; 1, does not usually apply to me; 2, does occasionally apply to me; 3, does apply to me.
Modified from Cushway et al.22
1. Work load (WL)
    A. Too much work to do
    B. Too many different things to do
    C. Not enough time to complete all tasks satisfactorily
    D. Too many patients
    E. Too long working hours
    F. Not enough time for recreation
2. Patient related difficulties (PD)
    A. Communicating with patients
    B. Dealing with death or suffering
    C. No or slowness of improvement in patient’s situation
    D. Dealing with difficult or demanding patients
    E. Dealing with physically threatening patients
    F. Managing therapeutic relations with patients
3. Organisational structure and processes (OS)
    A. Lack of support from management
    B. Lack of relationship with your immediate supervisors
    C. Lack of communications and flow of information at work
    D. Poor management and supervision
    E. Lack of ways that conflicts are resolved in the organisation
    F. Poor organisational structure and policies
4. Lack of resources (RES)
    A. Lack of adequate staffing
    B. Lack of financial resources for training courses/workshops
    C. Lack of adequate equipment/supplies
    D. Lack of adequate protection in potentially dangerous environment
    E. Inadequate clerical/technical back up
    F. Poor physical working conditions
5. Conflict with other professionals (COF)
    A. Conflict with other professionals (e.g. doctor)
    B. Conflicting roles with other health professionals
    C. Conflict with staff in other departments
    D. Criticism by other professionals (e.g. doctor)
    E. Lack of emotional support from colleagues
    F. Difficulty of working with certain colleagues
6. Professional self doubt (SD)
    A. Feeling inadequately skilled for dealing with emotional needs of patients
    B. Feeling uncertain about own capabilities
    C. Feeling inadequately skilled for dealing with difficult patients
    D. Feeling about the efficacy of therapeutic endeavours
    E. Difficulty in keeping professional/clinical skills up to date
    F. Fear of a mistake over a patient’s treatment
7. Home-work conflicts
    A. Not enough time with friends
    B. Inability to separate personal from professional role
    C. Taking work home
    D. Relationship with spouse/partner affects work
    E. Work results in feelings of emptiness and/or isolation
    F. Inadequate time for friendships/social relationships