Table 3

Odds ratios for explanatory variables of radiating neck pain among Finnish forest industry workers in 1992–5 (marginal model fitted by generalised estimating equations method, n=5179)

Explanatory variableRadiating neck pain
OR95% CI
Constants for three level response:
 Intercept 10.020.01 to 0.03
 Intercept 20.060.04 to 0.08
Time:
 19921.0
 19930.90.8 to 1.0
 19941.11.0 to 1.2
 19950.70.7 to 0.8
Sex:
 Male1.0
 Female1.41.0 to 1.8
Age (y):
 <351.0
 35–441.21.0 to 1.4
 45–541.71.5 to 2.1
 55–641.81.4 to 2.3
Amount of twisting movements of the trunk during a work day:
 Not at all1.0
 Little1.81.0 to 3.3
 Moderate2.91.6 to 5.2
 Much3.51.9 to 6.7
Working with a hand above shoulder level (h/day):
 <0.51.0
 0.5–13.41.5 to 7.5
 >12.20.7 to 6.4
Balance of work demands:
 Good1.0
 Moderate1.21.0 to 1.3
 Poor1.21.0 to 1.3
Overload at work:
 Not at all1.0
 Little1.21.1 to 1.3
 Definite1.31.1 to 1.5
Body mass index (kg/m2):
 <23.01.0
 23.0–25.91.11.0 to 1.3
 26.0–28.91.41.2 to 1.7
 ⩾29.01.51.2 to 1.7
Smoking:
 Non-smoker1.0
 Ex-smoker1.11.0 to 1.2
 Current smoker1.21.1 to 1.3
Mental stress:
 Not at all1.0
 Little1.50.8 to 3.0
 To some extent2.21.2 to 4.3
 Much6.43.1 to 13.0
Other musculoskeletal pains (sum score):
 Increment of one unit2.32.2 to 2.4
Interactions:
 Sex×age (y):
  Male×<351.0
  Female×35–441.61.2 to 2.3
  Female×45–541.20.9 to 1.7
  Female×55–641.00.6 to 1.7
 Twisting of the trunk×stress:
  Not at all×not at all1.0
  Little×little1.00.5 to 2.0
  Little×to some extent0.90.5 to 1.8
  Little×much0.40.2 to 0.8
  Moderate×little0.90.4 to 1.7
  Moderate×to some extent0.80.4 to 1.5
  Moderate×much0.40.2 to 0.8
  Much×little1.00.5 to 2.0
  Much×to some extent0.90.4 to 1.8
  Much×much0.30.2 to 0.7
 Twisting of the trunk×working with a hand above shoulder level (h/day):
  Not at all×<0.51.0
  Little×0.5–10.40.2 to 0.9
  Little×>10.80.3 to 2.5
  Moderate×0.5–10.30.2 to 0.8
  Moderate×>10.60.2 to 1.8
  Much×0.5–10.30.1 to 0.6
  Much×>10.60.2 to 1.7