Table 1

Relation between work demands and the assessment of the maximally acceptable load on an individual level, reliability, and prognostic value for health complaints of available tests concerning lifting, pushing, and pulling

Specific occupational physical demandAvailable tests (reference)Content validityReliability (test-retest)Prognostic value
+, the method meets the criterion; +/−, the method meets the criterion only partly; −, the method does not meet the criterion; ?, no studies were found on this criterion; *, protocol was inquired from experts.
Lifting Static
Isometric strength+/−++/−
– Load cell or dynamometer and handle bars (7–33)
– Cybex Liftask (17)
– Protocol Ergos Worksimulator* (28, 34–36)
– Protocol Ergo-kit* (33–35)
– Protocol Blankenship* (34, 35)
– Ariel* (37–39)
Dynamic
– Lido lifting test (17)???
– Lifttests of Laflin et al (19)+/−+?
– LIFTEST (20, 31)?+?
– PILE protocol (24, 43, 44, 49, 55, 56)?+?
– Incremental lifting machine (26, 30, 32, 53, 54)?+?
– Protocol Ergos Worksimulator* (28, 34–36)+/−??
– Lifting test of Dempsey et al (30)???
– Protocol Isernhagen Work System* (32–34)+/−+/−?
– Protocol Blankenship* (33, 34)+/−??
– Protocol Ergo-kit* (33–35)+/−??
– Repeated lifting test (37)???
– Operational lifting test (38)???
– Progressive lifting test (38)???
– Ariel* (37–39)?+?
– Tests for lifting and carrying of Rayson et al (40)+/−??
– DOT Residual Functional Capacity battery (41, 42)+/−+?
– Aristokin* (43)?+?
– Cybex liftask (44–49)???
– West lifting test (50)?+?
– EPIC lifting test (50–52)?+?
– RAL lifting test (57)?+?
– Physical Work Performance Evaluation (58)+/−??
– 6 Days Functional Capacity Evaluation (59)+/−+?
– Minigym (60)???
– Maximal dynamic lift (60)???
– Maximal acceptable lift (60)???
– One Repetition Maximum (61)?+?
– Dynamic lifting test of Hazard et al (62)???
Pushing and pulling Static
Isometric strength (11, 12, 63)+/−++/−
– Protocol Ergos Worksimulator* (28, 34–36)
– Protocol Isernhagen Work System* (33–35)
– Protocol Blankenship* (34, 35)
Dynamic
– Dynamometer (19)?+/−?
– Protocol Isernhagen Work System* (33–35)???
– Protocol Blankenship* (34, 35)???
– Physical Work Performance Evaluation (57)+/−??