Table 2

Published US Gulf War veteran mortality during the postwar period

Authors YearStudy design CountryDescriptionResults
Kang and Bullman 1996Cohort USAA study of postwar mortality through 30/9/93 among 695516 Gulf veterans and 746291 other veteransGulf veterans had significant excesses of death from all external causes (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.27) and from motor vehicle accidents (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.49), while mortality from disease related causes was lower (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.02)
Kang et al 1997Nested case-control549 male Gulf veterans and 398 male non-Gulf veterans who died from MVA were compared on host and external factors (demographics, military characteristics, vehicle type, nature of accidents, etc) using data obtained from the National Highway Transportation Safety AdministrationGulf veterans died from MVA accidents less often used seat belt, or wore motorcycle helmets; more often speeding, collision with fixed objects, head-on collisions, alcohol involved, or died at scene of the accidents
Macfarlane et al 2000Cohort UKA study of postwar mortality from 1/4/91 to 31/3/99 among 53462 Gulf veterans and an equal number of non-Gulf veteransMortality from external causes was higher (MRR 1.18, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.42) while mortality from disease related causes was lower in the Gulf cohort (0.87, 0.67 to 1.11).
Kang and Bullman 2001Cohort USAFurther update of the US Gulf veteran mortality study through 31/12/97. A total of 10424 deaths in 6½12 year postwar period were analysed by their deployment status. For Gulf veterans, the mortality risk was also evaluated for the likelihood of exposure to nerve gas from Khamisiyah incidentsOver the entire 6½12 year period, the risk of deaths due to MVA was still higher; however, the risk had decreased steadily over time. The risk of death due to disease related causes remained at or below expected values