Table 1

Published US Gulf War veteran mortality during the conflict period

Authors YearStudy design CountryDescriptionResults
Helmkemp 1994Cohort USAA study of fatal battle and non-battle causalities from 17/1/91 to 28/2/91 among approximately 540000 active duty US military personnel deployed to the Persian Gulf154 killed in battle including 35 from a friendly fire; 65 died from non-battle causes including 55 from accidents and 6 from illness
Writer et al 1996Cohort USAA study of cause specific mortality rates among 688702 active duty personnel deployed to the Persian Gulf from 1/8/90 to 31/7/91 and all other troops serving elsewhere during the same periodThe risks of death from injuries (SMR 118, 95% CI 101 to 134) and unintentional injuries (SMR 154, 95% CI 132 to 177) were significantly higher among Gulf veterans