Table 5

Relative strength of association with chronic bronchitis of relevant genetic, lifestyle, clinical, sociodemographic characteristics, and relevant occupational exposures

OR (95% CI) p Value
Smokingv not2.4 (1.7 to 3.4)<0.001
Inhalation v not1.7 (1.3 to 2.4)<0.001
Age (y, risk associated with a one unit change)1.04 (1.02 to 1.06)0.002
Alcohol use, different categories referencing abstainers:0.003
 Moderate use (1–21 drinks/week)0.8 (0.6 to 1.1)
 More than moderate (22–35 drinks/week)1.1 (0.7 to 1.6)
 Heavy use (>35 drinks/week)1.5 (0.96 to 2.2)
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg, risk associated with a one unit change)0.99 (0.98 to 0.997)0.003
Long term exposure to cold and draught exposurev not1.4 (1.1 to 1.7)0.004
Long term exposure to organic solvents vnot1.5 (1.1 to 2.1)0.008
Height (cm, risk associated with a one unit change)0.98 (0.96 to 0.997)0.019
Long term dust exposure v not1.5 (1.1 to 2.1)0.025
NS-phenotype v others0.7 (0.5 to 0.999)0.044
  • Not in the final model (p>0.10): weight, retirement status, social class.

  • Variables are ordered according to strength of association with bronchitis after multivariate adjustment in a logistic regression model with backward elimination of variables.