Table 1

Forces affecting the lumbar spine by control subjects' occupational groups

Occupational group according to the 1992 classification of occupations (code) of the German Federal Statistical InstituteInitial assessment of physical workloadBefore 1975Since 1975
Control jobs ⩾1 y (n)Sum lumbar spine force through lifting, carrying, or extreme forward bending/y (106Nh)Control jobs ⩾1 y (n)Sum lumbar spine force through lifting, carrying, or extreme forward bending/y (106Nh)
MeanMedianMinimumMaximumMeanMedianMinimumMaximum
Agriculture and mining:
 Agricultural, animal husbandry, and forestry workersHigh40.360.2101.0141.231.3202.30
 Miners, quarrymen, and stone treatersHigh21.641.6403.27
Production:
 Stone cutters and curversHigh10.630.630.630.63
 Ceramic and glass workersMedium
 Chemical processers and manufacturers of plastics productMedium10.700.700.700.7090.97007.60
 Manufacturers of paper and paper products; printersMedium140.760.5402.56140.05000.63
 Wood treaters; basket makersMedium
 Metal processers, blacksmithsHigh71.241.1902.89120.580.3001.83
 Metal workers (machinery fitters, machine assemblers, mechanics, manufacturers of precision instruments; plumbers, welders, sheet metal and structural metal preparers and erectors)High250.480.1102.59450.750.3905.19
 Electrical and electronics workersMedium220.570.1102.56140.26001.30
 Electrical fittersMedium21.121.120.501.75
 Spinners, weavers, knitters, dyers; tailors, dressmakersLow40000
 Tanners, fellmongers, pelt dressers; shoemakers, and leather goods makersHigh3000040000
 Food and beverage processors; tobacco product makersLow40.310.250.180.57130.360.3600.70
 Construction workers (structural engineering, civil engineering)High161.761.6903.6320.890.890.291.49
 Plasterers, insulators, glaziers, terazzo workers, construction carpenters, roofers; upholsterersHigh81.900.6006.8682.602.310.386.86
 Woodworkers and plastic workers (carpenters, cabinet makers, wooden or plastic models makers, wood frame construction)High70.961.180.151.9221.701.701.402.00
 Painters; varnishersMedium20.710.710.211.2011.201.201.201.20
 Quality inspectors; packersMedium41.750.730.045.50
 LabourersMedium20.510.5101.0130.20000.60
 Operators (crane and earth moving machinery operators, etc)Low60.66002.8980.400.1101.14
Technology:
  Technicians (engineers, architects, chemists, physicists, electrical engineering technicians)Low310.26004.82500.18004.82
Services:
  Service workers: storemen, nurses, refuse collectorsHigh61.210.7203.39170.520.4301.92
 SoldiersLow280.620.2404.80330.610.3701.89
 Other service workersLow1290.28004.542730.18004.54
Workers not elsewhere classifiedMedium20.200.200.190.2040.690.1602.46
Total0.5400.370