Effect/biomarker | Clerks | Workers | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
(% M) | Total | Sprayed glue | ||||||
No Heat | Yes Heat | |||||||
No (n=71) | Yes (n=32) | No (n=4) | Yes (n=45) | |||||
Metabolites^{2-150}: | ||||||||
P-MDX | LM | 65 | 0.27 (LM–18) | LM (LM–1.8) | 0.64 (LM–7.9) | 0.42 (LM–0.9) | 0.89 (LM–18) | |
U-MDX | LM | 11 | LM (LM–9.4) | LM (LM–4.7) | LM (LM–1.8) | LM (LM–2.1) | LM (LM–9.4) | |
P-2,4-TDX | LM | 16 | LM (LM–1.7) | LM (LM–0.4) | LM (LM–0.4) | LM (LM–0.3) | LM (LM–1.7) | |
U-2,4-TDX | LM | 47 | LM (LM–11) | LM (LM–11) | LM (LM–2.7) | 0.35 (LM–1.4) | LM (LM–2.7) | |
P-2,6-TDX | LM | 7 | LM (LM–0.9) | LM (LM–0.2) | LM (LM–LM) | LM (LM–LM) | LM (LM–0.9) | |
U-2,6-TDX | LM | 5 | LM (LM–0.8) | LM (LM–0.3) | LM (LM–0.1) | LM (LM–LM) | LM (LM–0.8) | |
Antibodies^{2-150}: | ||||||||
S-IgG-MDI | 0.10 | 97 | 0.10 (0.02–1.1) | 0.09 (0.02–0.4) | 0.10 (0.02–0.4) | 0.08 (0.08–0.09) | 0.13 (0.06–1.1) | |
S-IgG-TDI | 0.10 | 97 | 0.13 (0.05–0.8) | 0.11 (0.05–0.3) | 0.13 (0.07–0.4) | 0.10 (0.08–0.12) | 0.15 (0.05–0.8) | |
S-IgG-HDI | 0.16 | 97 | 0.14 (0–1.1) | 0.12 (0.02–0.8) | 0.13 (0–0.5) | 0.17 (0.05–0.34) | 0.21 (0.06–1.1) | |
S-IgE-MDI | 0 | 97 | 0 (0–5.3) | 0 (0–5.3) | 0 (0–1.4) | 0 (0–0) | 0 (0–0.7) | |
S-IgG | 11 | 97 | 14 (8.3–23) | 14 (8.3–20) | 13 (8.6–20) | 16 (9.8–22) | 15 (9.8–23) | |
S-IgM | 1.1 | 97 | 1.2 (0.3–3) | 1.1 (0.3–2.8) | 1.4 (0.3–2.4) | 1.3 (0.8–2.2) | 1.4 (0.3–3) | |
S-IgA | 2.7 | 97 | 2.2 (0.5–5.3) | 2.3 (0.9–5.3) | 2.0 (1.2–4.9) | 2.4 (1.7–4.3) | 2.2 (0.5–4) | |
S-IgE | 64 | 97 | 21 (1–2000) | 20 (1–2000) | 29 (1–210) | 20 (3–360) | 17 (2–220) | |
Work related symptoms: | ||||||||
Total (n (%)) | 0 | 100 | 47 (31) | 14 (20) | 9 (28) | 3 (75) | 21 (47) | |
Eyes | — | — | 21 (14) | 7 (10) | 6 (19) | 2 (50) | 6 (13) | |
Airways | — | — | 40 (26) | 13 (18) | 8 (25) | 1 (25) | 18 (40) | |
Nose | — | — | 32 (21) | 12 (17) | 6 (19) | 1 (25) | 13 (29) | |
Lower | — | — | 17 (11) | 5 (7) | 4 (12) | 0 (0) | 8 (18) | |
Lung function^{2-150}: | ||||||||
VC | 94 | 99 | 93 (63–130) | 93 (72–130) | 100 (78–129) | 94 (82–128) | 90 (63–124) | |
FEV_{1} | 99 | 99 | 97 (67–130) | 95 (67–126) | 102 (70–130) | 98 (79–128) | 94 (72–124) |
↵2-150 P-MDX and U-MDX=metabolites of 4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), P-2,4-TDX and U-2,4-TDX and P-2,6-TDX and U-2,6-TDX=metabolites of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 2,6-TDI in plasma and urine (μg/l); S-IgG-MDI, S-IgG-TDI, S-IgG-HDI, and S-IgE-MDI=specific serum IgG (A) and IgE (% binding) antibodies against MDI, TDI, and hexamethylene diisocyanate; S-IgG, S-IgM, S-IgA, S-IgE = total serum IgG, IgM, IgA (g/l), and IgE (kU/l) antibodies.
VC=vital capacity, FEV_{1}=forced exspiratory volume in 1 second (% predicted).
(% M)=% of workers with measurable values; LM=limit of measurement=⩽0.05 μg/l.