Table 3

Tubular proteinuria (defined as excreting protein HC >0.8 and 0.6 mg/mmol creatinine, for men and women, respectively) in people exposed to cadmium

Urinary Cd (nmol/mmol creatinine) Mean urinary Cd (nmol/mmol creatinine) Environmentally exposed people cases/total (prevalence %)
(missing, n=17)
Occupationally exposed people cases/total (prevalence %)
(missing, n=3)
Total population cases/total
(prevalence %)
OR, total (95% CI)
(test for trend, p<0.001)
OR, environmentally exposed people
(95% CI)
(test for trend, p=0.001)
<0.30.2112/252 (4.8)1/13 (7.7)13/265 (4.9)1.01.0
0.3–<0.50.3833/243 (14)4/30 (13)37/273 (14)1.8 (0.9 to 3.5)2.5 (1.1 to 5.5)
0.5–<10.6960/232 (26)8/66 (12)68/298 (23)2.7 (1.4 to 5.3)4.3 (1.9 to 11)
1–<21.422/53 (42)10/55 (18)32/108 (30)3.6 (1.7 to 7.6)7.5 (3.5 to 44)
2–<32.51/1 (100)7/23 (30)8/24 (33)4.0 (1.4 to 12)
3–<53.80/1 (0)7/20 (35)7/21 (33)4.7 (1.6 to 14)
⩾56.8— (—)6/12 (50)6/12 (50)6.0 (1.6 to 22)
  • Analyses were missing for 20 people.