Table 1

Results of hazards survey1-150 and categories for assessment of exposure to nitrosamines1-151

Work area Nitrosamine1-152 Concentration
in air (μg/m3)1-150
Exposure category1-151
Salt bath curing (except for salt bath curing with only peroxide accelerators)NDMA1–130High
Vulcanisation and subsequent production stages with use of NDPhA1-152:
 Tube vulcanisationNDMA15–140
 Injection mouldingNDMA40–90
 Tube and tyre warehouseNDMA4–20
Same production stages (as above) without use of NDPhA1-152:Medium
 Tube vulcanisationNDMA1–4.5
 Tube and tyre warehouseNDMA1–4.5
Other hot processes starting with vulcanisation:
 Tyre vulcanisationNDMA0.1–2
 Injection moulding: soles of shoeNDMA0.2–3.5
Work areas before vulcanisation:Low
 Raw material handling, weighing, and mixingNDMA0.1–0.9
 Milling, extruding, calenderingNDMA0.1–2
 Assembly and buildingNDMA0.1–1
  • 1-150 Adapted from tables I–V. 16

  • 1-151 According to workshop with B Spiegelhalder, H Kromhout, R Vermeulen, K Norpoth, members of the Berufsgenossenschaft and industrial hygienists and occupational physicians of the rubber factories involved.

  • 1-152 NDPhA=N-nitrosodiphenylamine; NDMA=N-nitrosodimethylamine; NMOR=N-nitrosomorpholine.