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Occupational risk factors associated with lower urinary tract symptoms among female workers: a systematic review
  1. Hyoungseob Yoo1,
  2. Jae Yoon Kim2,
  3. Yu Min Lee3,
  4. Mo-Yeol Kang1
  1. 1Department of Occupational and Enviornmental Medicine, Seoul Saint Mary's Hospital, The Catholic Uinversity of Korea, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of)
  2. 2Department of Urology, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of)
  3. 3Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of)
  1. Correspondence to Dr Mo-Yeol Kang, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Seoul Saint Mary's Hospital, Seoul 06591, Korea (the Republic of); snaptoon{at}


A systematic review was performed aiming to identify the various occupational risk factors of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among female workers. A systematic, comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases was conducted to identify studies published until 24 November 2021, evaluating the possible occupational risk factors of LUTS among female workers. Two reviewers assessed all articles retrieved through a computerised search for eligibility using predetermined criteria. Data on the first author, publication year, country, study design, participants, identified occupational risk factors, outcome variables and main results were extracted from the selected articles. The Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale guidelines were adopted to estimate the quality scores. Overall, our search yielded a total of 16 articles suitable for review. The occupational risk factors identified in the studies were strenuous physical demand and activity, prolonged sitting, occupational stress, shift work, limited use of the toilet at work and other occupational environments (eg, an unclean and uncomfortable workplace, dangerous job and probability of accidents, feeling pressed for time and awkward position for long periods). The findings of this review may raise awareness regarding the risk of LUTS among female workers with these factors. From an occupational health perspective, the implementation of tailored prevention strategies based on these occupational factors may prevent female workers from developing LUTS.

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  • occupational stress
  • urogenital system
  • women

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  • HY and JYK contributed equally.

  • Contributors HY and JYK contributed equally to the study. HY—investigation, data curation, resources, visualisation, writing (review and editing). JYK—investigation, data curation, resources, writing (review and editing). YML—writing (review and editing). M-YK—conceptualisation, methodology, validation, roles/writing (original draft); writing (review and editing).

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.