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Assessing the relationship between hypospadias risk and parental occupational exposure to potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals
  1. Deepjyoti Das1,
  2. Hemonta Kumar Dutta2,
  3. Debasish Borbora3,
  4. Rocket Chandra Brahma1,
  5. Jitu Mani Das3
  1. 1Department of Surgery, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, India
  2. 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, India
  3. 3Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Hemonta Kumar Dutta, Pediatric Surgery, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, India; hemontdut{at}gmail.com

Abstract

Objective The association between periconceptional parental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and hypospadias remains inconclusive and controversial. Therefore, we conducted a hospital-based retrospective study to assess the relationship between hypospadias risk and parental occupational exposure to potential EDCs.

Methods Incident cases (n=73) were boys between 0 and 14 years diagnosed with hypospadias with no micropenis or cryptorchidism. Controls (n=146) were an age-matched group of boys without any congenital malformations, inguinal hernia, nephrological, urological and genital disorders. Their selection was independent of exposures to EDCs. Data on parental occupation and sociodemographic variables were collected using a structured questionnaire. We evaluated parental occupational exposures using a previously validated job-exposure matrix (JEM) for EDCs.

Results In our case–control study, 30.1% of all pregnancies had likely exposure to potential EDCs. The most prevalent occupations conferring possible exposure were related to activities on farms. Maternal and paternal occupational exposure to potential EDCs significantly increased the risk of mild hypospadias than moderate-to-severe hypospadias (OR=6.55 vs OR=4.63). Among various categories, parental occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with at least a twofold increased risk of hypospadias. Maternal EDC exposure during the first trimester significantly increased the risk of bearing a hypospadiac child (OR=4.72 (95% CI 2.10 to 10.60)).

Conclusion This study suggests that EDCs are a risk factor for hypospadias through occupational exposure during fetal life.

  • Pediatrics
  • Occupational Health
  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Urogenital System

Data availability statement

Data are available on reasonable request.

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Data availability statement

Data are available on reasonable request.

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Footnotes

  • Contributors DD and RCB: data collection, formal analysis and original draft writing. HKD and DB: critical review, editing and data analysis. RCB and JMD: critical review and editing.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.