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Should office workers spend fewer hours at their computer? A systematic review of the literature
  1. Stefan IJmker (s.ijmker{at}
  1. Body@Work TNO VUmc, Netherlands
    1. Maaike Huysmans (m.huysmans{at}
    1. Institute for Fundamental and Clinical Human Movement Sciences (IFKB), Netherlands
      1. Birgitte M. Blatter (birgitte.blatter{at}
      1. TNO Quality of Life, Netherlands
        1. Allard J. van der Beek (a.vanderbeek{at}
        1. VU University Medical Centre
          1. Willem van Mechelen (w.vanmechelen{at}
          1. VU University Medical Centre, Netherlands
            1. Paulien M. Bongers (paulien.bongers{at}
            1. TNO Quality of Life, Netherlands


              Worldwide, millions of office workers use a computer. Reports of adverse health effects due to computer use have received considerable media attention. This systematic review summarises the evidence for a relation between the duration of work time spent using the computer and the incidence of hand-arm and neck-shoulder symptoms and disorders. Several databases were systematically searched up to 6 November 2005. Two reviewers independently selected articles that presented a risk estimate for the duration of computer use, included an outcome measure related to hand-arm or neck-shoulder symptoms or disorders, and had a longitudinal study design. The strength of the evidence was based on methodological quality and consistency of the results. Nine relevant articles were identified, of which six were rated as high quality. Moderate evidence was concluded for a positive association between the duration of mouse use and hand-arm symptoms. For this association, indications for a dose-response relationship were found. Risk estimates were in general stronger for the hand-arm region than for the neck-shoulder region, and stronger for mouse use than for total computer use and keyboard use. A pathophysiological model focussing on the overuse of muscles during computer use supports these differences. Future studies are needed to improve our understanding of safe levels of computer use by measuring the duration of computer use in a more objective way, differentiating between total computer use, mouse use and keyboard use, attaining sufficient exposure contrast, and collecting data on disability caused by symptoms.

              • computers
              • longitudinal studies
              • neck
              • review literature
              • upper extremity

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