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N-95 respirator: gain in protection, pain in the face?
  1. Delice Weishan Lee1,
  2. Daphne Weiyi Li2
  1. 1 Anaesthesia, National University Hospital (National University Health System), Singapore
  2. 2 Anaesthesia, Ng Teng Fong General Hospital (National University Health System), Singapore
  1. Correspondence to Dr Daphne Weiyi Li, National University Health System, 119074, Singapore; daphne_li{at}

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In the midst of the global COVID-19 pandemic, the availability of well-fitting personal protective equipment (PPE) is essential to protect healthcare workers (HCWs) from the risks of contracting droplets and/or airborne infections from patients under their care. However, prolonged use of PPE, in particular, the N-95 respirator, can lead to the development of device-related pressure ulcers (DRPU) over the face, adding to the numerous physical and psychological stressors faced by HCWs. The incidence of DRPU in HCWs is high, as evidenced by the results of a survey conducted on 526 frontline HCWs, where 83.1% and 78.7% of respondents reported skin damage over the nasal bridge and cheek, respectively, with …

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  • Contributors Both authors contributed equally to this manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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