Objectives This study provides a detailed analysis of the global and regional burden of cancer due to occupational carcinogens from the Global Burden of Disease 2016 study.
Methods The burden of cancer due to 14 International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1 occupational carcinogens was estimated using the population attributable fraction, based on past population exposure prevalence and relative risks from the literature. The results were used to calculate attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).
Results There were an estimated 349 000 (95% Uncertainty Interval 269 000 to 427 000) deaths and 7.2 (5.8 to 8.6) million DALYs in 2016 due to exposure to the included occupational carcinogens—3.9% (3.2% to 4.6%) of all cancer deaths and 3.4% (2.7% to 4.0%) of all cancer DALYs; 79% of deaths were of males and 88% were of people aged 55 –79 years. Lung cancer accounted for 86% of the deaths, mesothelioma for 7.9% and laryngeal cancer for 2.1%. Asbestos was responsible for the largest number of deaths due to occupational carcinogens (63%); other important risk factors were secondhand smoke (14%), silica (14%) and diesel engine exhaust (5%). The highest mortality rates were in high-income regions, largely due to asbestos-related cancers, whereas in other regions cancer deaths from secondhand smoke, silica and diesel engine exhaust were more prominent. From 1990 to 2016, there was a decrease in the rate for deaths (−10%) and DALYs (−15%) due to exposure to occupational carcinogens.
Conclusions Work-related carcinogens are responsible for considerable disease burden worldwide. The results provide guidance for prevention and control initiatives.
- diesel engine exhaust
- occupational exposure
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Collaborators Collaborators details are as follows: Tim Driscoll, Lesley Rushton, Kyle Steenland, Sally Hutchings, Kurt Straif, Degu Abate, Omar Abdel-Rahman, Dilaram Acharya, Mohsen Afarideh, Fares Alahdab, Ziyad Al-Aly, Mina Anjomshoa, Olatunde Aremu, Al Artaman, Zerihun Ataro, Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla, Alaa Badawi, Masoud Behzadifar, Meysam Behzadifar, Mircea Beuran, Krittika Bhattacharyya, Ali Bijani, Tone Bjørge, Zahid A Butt, Juan J Carrero, Félix Carvalho, Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela, Ester Cerin, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Odgerel Chimed-Ochir, Raquel Crider, Christopher Stephen Crowe, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Anh Kim Dang, Ahmad Daryani, Beruk Berhanu Desalegn, Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne, Shirin Djalalinia, Andem Effiong, Ziad El-Khatib, Alireza Esteghamati, Mohammad Fareed, Eduarda Fernandes, Irina Filip, Florian Fischer, Takeshi Fukumoto, Silvano Gallus, Teklu Gebrehiwo Gebremichael, Kebede Embaye Gezae, Ayman Grada, Andre Luiz Sena Guimaraes, Rahul Gupta, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Arvin Haj-Mirzaian, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Randah R Hamadeh, Samer Hamidi, Hadi Hassankhani, Simon I. Hay, Mohamed I Hegazy, Andualem Henok, Chi Linh Hoang, Michael K. Hole, H Dean Hosgood, Mostafa Hosseini, Mihaela Hostiuc, Sorin Hostiuc, Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Ravi Prakash Jha, Mikk Jürisson, Amaha Kahsay, Narges Karimi, Amir Kasaeian, Zemenu Yohannes Kassa, Yousef Saleh Khader, Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie, Ejaz Ahmad Khan, Mohammad Hossein Khosravi, Jagdish Khubchandani, Aliasghar A Kiadaliri, Yun Jin Kim, Manolis Kogevinas235, David Koh, Soewarta Kosen, Ai Koyanagi, G Anil Kumar, Deepesh P Lad, Dharmesh Kumar Lal, Faris Hasan Lami, Arman Latifi, James Leigh, Shai Linn, Marek Majdan, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Benjamin Ballard Massenburg, Addisu Melese, Mulugeta Melku, Ziad A Memish, Walter Mendoza, Getnet Mengistu, Tuomo J Meretoja, Tomislav Mestrovic, Bartosz Miazgowski, Tomasz Miazgowski, Erkin M Mirrakhimov, Babak Moazen, Shafiu Mohammed, Farnam Mohebi, Ali H Mokdad, Yoshan Moodley, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Ghobad Moradi, Lidia Morawska, Shane Douglas Morrison, Seyyed Meysam Mousavi, Ghulam Mustafa, Ionut Negoi, Ruxandra Irina Negoi, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Trang Huyen Nguyen, Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum, Molly R Nixon, Richard Ofori-Asenso, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Andrew T Olagunju, Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya, Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano, Mahesh P A, Eun-Kee Park, David M. Pereira, Swayam Prakash, Mostafa Qorbani, Amir Radfar, Anwar Rafay, Alireza Rafiei, Fakher Rahim, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Fatemeh Rajati, Robert C Reiner, Andre M. N. Renzaho, Satar Rezaei, Leonardo Roever, Mohammad Saadat, Basema Saddik, Saeed Safari, Saeid Safiri, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Hamideh Salimzadeh, Abdallah M. Samy, Juan Sanabria, Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez, Brijesh Sathian, David C. Schwebel, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Berrin Serdar, Masood Ali Shaikh, Rajesh Sharma, Jun She, Mika Shigematsu, Reza Shirkoohi, Si Si, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Moslem Soofi, Jeffrey D Stanaway, Mark A Stokes, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Takahiro Tabuchi, Ken Takahashi, Yonatal Mesfin Tefera, Mohamad-Hani Temsah, Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone, Bach Xuan Tran, Khanh Bao Tran, Irfan Ullah, Pascual R Valdez, Tommi Juhani Vasankari, Francesco S Violante, Vasily Vlassov, Giang Thu Vu, Yasir Waheed, Yuan-Pang Wang, Alex Yeshaneh, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Engida Yisma, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Chuanhua Yu, Vesna Zadnik, Mohammad Zamani, Hamed Zandian, Sanjay Zodpey, and Stephen S Lim (online supplementary file).
Contributors The draft manuscript was prepared by Tim Driscoll, with input from Sally Hutchings, Lesley Rushton, Kyle Steenland and Kurt Straif. All listed authors have contributed appropriately to the GBD project and to the review and modification of the manuscript. The final manuscript was prepared by TD following comments from co-authors and Journal reviewers and editors.
Funding The overall GBD study is partly funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The work reported in this paper was partly supported by funding from the World Health Organization. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation or writing of the report. The authors had access to the data in the study and the final responsibility to submit the paper.
Disclaimer The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health.
Competing interests RC reports board membership on the Board of Directors, Food Ingredient and Research, Hawaii, outside the submitted work. TJM reports grants from Cancer Foundation Finland sr., during the conduct of the study.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available in a public, open access repository. The data on which this analysis is based are available on the GBD Compare web site (https://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare/). Some of the raw data (where data owners give permission or where it is already public access) is available on the data section of the IHME GBD web site (http://www.healthdata.org/gbd/data).