Objectives This study provides an overview of the influence of occupational risk factors on the global burden of disease as estimated by the occupational component of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016 study.
Methods The GBD 2016 study estimated the burden in terms of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) arising from the effects of occupational risk factors (carcinogens; asthmagens; particulate matter, gases and fumes (PMGF); secondhand smoke (SHS); noise; ergonomic risk factors for low back pain; risk factors for injury). A population attributable fraction (PAF) approach was used for most risk factors.
Results In 2016, globally, an estimated 1.53 (95% uncertainty interval 1.39–1.68) million deaths and 76.1 (66.3–86.3) million DALYs were attributable to the included occupational risk factors, accounting for 2.8% of deaths and 3.2% of DALYs from all causes. Most deaths were attributable to PMGF, carcinogens (particularly asbestos), injury risk factors and SHS. Most DALYs were attributable to injury risk factors and ergonomic exposures. Men and persons 55 years or older were most affected. PAFs ranged from 26.8% for low back pain from ergonomic risk factors and 19.6% for hearing loss from noise to 3.4% for carcinogens. DALYs per capita were highest in Oceania, Southeast Asia and Central sub-Saharan Africa. On a per capita basis, between 1990 and 2016 there was an overall decrease of about 31% in deaths and 25% in DALYs.
Conclusions Occupational exposures continue to cause an important health burden worldwide, justifying the need for ongoing prevention and control initiatives.
- respiratory tract diseases
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Collaborators GBD 2016 Occupational Risk Factors Collaborators: Tim Driscoll, Lesley Rushton, Sally J Hutchings, Kurt Straif, Kyle Steenland, Degu Abate, Cristiana Abbafati, Dilaram Acharya, Oladimeji M Adebayo, Mahdi Afshari, Tomi Akinyemiju, Fares Alahdab Evidence Based Practice Center, Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, MN, USA, Mina Anjomshoa, Carl Abelardo T. Antonio, Olatunde Aremu, Zerihun Ataro, Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla, Joseph Adel Mattar Banoub, Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo, Till Winfried Bärnighausen, Lope H Barrero, Neeraj Bedi, Masoud Behzadifar, Meysam Behzadifar, Fernando G. Benavides, Mircea Beuran, Krittika Bhattacharyya, Ali Bijani, Rosario Cárdenas, Juan J Carrero, Félix Carvalho, Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela, Ester Cerin, Cyrus Cooper, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Anh Kim Dang, Ahmad Daryani, Beruk Berhanu Desalegn, Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne, Eleonora Dubljanin, Ziad El-Khatib, Sharareh Eskandarieh, Mohammad Fareed, Andre Faro, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Eduarda Fernandes, Irina Filip, Florian Fischer, Takeshi Fukumoto, Silvano Gallus, Teklu Gebrehiwo Gebremichael, Kebede Embaye Gezae, Tiffany K Gill, Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart, Ayman Grada, Yuming Guo, Rahul Gupta, Arvin Haj-Mirzaian, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Randah R Hamadeh, Samer Hamidi, Behrooz Hamzeh, Hadi Hassankhani, Devan M Hawkins, Simon I. Hay, Mohamed I Hegazy, Andualem Henok, Chi Linh Hoang, Michael K. Hole, Enayatollah Homaie Rad, Naznin Hossain, Mostafa Hosseini, Sorin Hostiuc, Guoqing Hu, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Ravi Prakash Jha, Jost B. Jonas, Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari, Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak, Mikk Jürisson, Amaha Kahsay, Manoochehr Karami, Narges Karimi, Amir Kasaeian, Norito Kawakami, Yousef Saleh Khader, Ejaz Ahmad Khan, Jagdish Khubchandani, Yun Jin Kim, Adnan Kisa, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, G Anil Kumar, Manasi Kumar, Faris Hasan Lami, Arman Latifi, James Leigh, Miriam Levi, Shanshan Li, Shai Linn, Jaifred Christian F Lopez, Raimundas Lunevicius, Narayan Bahadur Mahotra, Marek Majdan, Reza Malekzadeh, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Benjamin Ballard Massenburg, Varshil Mehta, Addisu Melese, Ziad A Memish, Walter Mendoza, Getnet Mengistu, Atte Meretoja, Tuomo J Meretoja, Tomislav Mestrovic, Bartosz Miazgowski, Tomasz Miazgowski, Ted R Miller, GK Mini, Erkin M Mirrakhimov, Babak Moazen, Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji, Shafiu Mohammed, Farnam Mohebi, Ali H Mokdad, Mariam Molokhia, Lorenzo Monasta, Yoshan Moodley, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Ghobad Moradi, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Lidia Morawska, Shane Douglas Morrison, Seyyed Meysam Mousavi, Ghulam Mustafa, Farid Najafi, Vinay Nangia, Ionut Negoi, Ruxandra Irina Negoi, Subas Neupane, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Trang Huyen Nguyen, Molly R Nixon, Richard Ofori-Asenso, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Andrew T Olagunju, Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya, Stanislav S Otstavnov, Mahesh P A, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Eun-Kee Park, Swayam Prakash, Mostafa Qorbani, Amir Radfar, Anwar Rafay, Fakher Rahim, Robert C Reiner, Andre M. N. Renzaho, Leonardo Roever, Luca Ronfani, Basema Saddik, Roya Safari-Faramani, Sare Safi, Saeid Safiri, Payman Salamati, Yahya Salimi, Abdallah M. Samy, David C. Schwebel, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Berrin Serdar, Masood Ali Shaikh, Mehran Shams-Beyranvand School of Medicine, Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, Iran, Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini, Jun She, Mika Shigematsu, Rahman Shiri, Reza Shirkoohi, Si Si, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Jeffrey D Stanaway, Moslem Soofi, Mark A Stokes, Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Ken Takahashi, Segen Gebremeskel Tassew, Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi, Mohamad-Hani Temsah Bach Xuan Tran, Khanh Bao Tran, Lorainne Tudor Car, Irfan Ullah, Pascual R Valdez, Tommi Juhani Vasankari, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Francesco S Violante, Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov, Vasily Vlassov, Giang Thu Vu, Gregory R Wagner, Yasir Waheed, Yuan-Pang Wang, Andrea Werdecker, Andrea Sylvia Winkler, Ebrahim M Yimer, Paul Yip, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Engida Yisma, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Sojib Bin Zaman, Mohammad Zamani, Hamed Zandian, Yunquan Zhang, Sanjay Zodpey, Stephen S Lim.
Contributors The draft manuscript was prepared by Tim Driscoll, with input from Sally Hutchings, Lesley Rushton, Kyle Steenland and Kurt Straif. All listed authors have contributed appropriately to the GBD project and to the review and modification of the manuscript. The final manuscript was prepared by TD following comments from co-authors and Journal reviewers and editors.
Funding The overall GBD study is partly funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The work reported in this paper was partly supported by funding from the World Health Organization. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation or writing of the report. The authors had access to the data in the study and the final responsibility to submit the paper.
Disclaimer The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health.
Competing interests CATA reports personal fees from Johnson & Johnson (Philippines), outside the submitted work. CC reports personal fees from Amgen, Danone, Eli Lilly, GSK, Kyowa Kirin, Medtronic, Merck, Nestle, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, Servier, Shire, Takeda and UCB, outside the submitted work. BNGG reports grants from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), during the conduct of the study. NK reports personal fees from Junpukai Foundation and Softbank; and grants from Fujitsu, Fujitsu Software Technologies and Softbank, outside the submitted work. JK reports grants from Merck Pharmaceuticals, outside the submitted work. TJM reports grants from Cancer Foundation Finland sr, during the conduct of the study.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available in a public, open access repository. The data on which this analysis is based are available on the GBD Compare web site (https://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare/). Some of the raw data (where data owners give permission or where it is already public access) is available on the data section of the IHME GBD web site (http://www.healthdata.org/gbd/data).
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