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Original research
Polymorphism in GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes influence DNA damage in personnel occupationally exposed to volatile anaesthetics (VA), from Peshawar, Pakistan
  1. Muhammad Khisroon1,
  2. Maleeha Humayun1,
  3. Ajmal Khan1,
  4. Javeed Farooqi1,
  5. Humayun2,
  6. Jamal khan3
  1. 1 Department of Zoology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan
  2. 2 Department of Anesthesiology, Kuwait Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan
  3. 3 Khyber College of Dentistry, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Muhammad Khisroon, Zoology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan; m_khisroon{at}


Objectives The objective of this study was to assess the influence of antioxidant gene GSTM1 and GSTT1 on DNA damage in personnel occupationally exposed to volatile anaesthetics (VA).

Methods The study groups were composed of 50 exposed subjects (anaesthesia workers) and 49 controls. Blood samples were collected from both subjects. DNA damage was analysed through the comet assay technique. Biomarker genes GSTM1 and GSTT1 were inspected through PCR technique for polymorphism.

Results The comet assay technique showed that the Total Comet Score (TCS) in exposed subjects was significantly higher (p=0.0001) than the control. Age and smoking had significant effects on TCS in the study groups (p<0.05). Duration of occupational exposure had significant positive correlation (r=0.755, p<0.001) with DNA damage. The null polymorphism in GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene showed a significant effect (p<0.001 and p<0.000) on the DNA damage.

Conclusions The polymorphism in GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene significantly damage DNA in personnel occupationally exposed to VA.

  • international occupational health
  • toxicology
  • P450 cytochrome enzymes
  • biomonitoring
  • genotoxicity

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  • Contributors MK head of the research group who conceived and designed the study. MK and JF wrote the first draft of the manuscript. MH performed experimental work. AK assisted in lab work, interpreted and analysed the data, edited and revised the final draft of the manuscript. H and JK interviewed the subjects and collected the samples. All the authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval The ethical approval for the study was granted by the Ethical Committee University of Peshawar (No. 15/EC-19/Pharm).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as online supplementary information.

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