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Occupational risk of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis: a nationwide population-based registry study
  1. Janneke W Duijster1,
  2. Eelco Franz1,
  3. Jacques J C Neefjes2,
  4. Lapo Mughini-Gras1,3
  1. 1 Center for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands
  2. 2 Oncode Institute and Department of Cell and Chemical Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
  3. 3 Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Dr Lapo Mughini-Gras, Center for Infectious Disease Control, RIVM, Bilthoven 3720 BA, The Netherlands; lapo.mughini.gras{at}


Objectives Occupational exposure to animals and foods thereof is a poorly characterised risk factor for salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis, the main causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the Western world. We performed a population-based registry study in the Netherlands to assess whether differences exist in the incidence of reported salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis cases among occupational groups, and whether they can be explained by differences in the magnitude of exposure to these pathogens, as defined by serology.

Methods Person-level occupational data for all Dutch residents were linked to lab-confirmed salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis data, and to serological data from a previous national serosurvey. SIRs for salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis among occupational sectors and specific high-risk occupations were calculated based on the total employed population. Moreover, Salmonella and Campylobacter seroincidence rates were compared among sectors and high-risk occupations.

Results Occupational exposure to live animals or manure and working in the sale of animal-derived food products were associated with significantly increased risks of salmonellosis (SIR 1.55–1.82) and campylobacteriosis (SIR 1.36–1.65). Moreover, incidences were significantly higher in specific industrial sectors, as well as healthcare and social work sectors. Mean seroincidence rates ranged from 1.28 to 2.30 infections/person-year for Campylobacter, and from 0.36 to 0.99 for Salmonella, with only slightly higher rates for people in high-risk occupations.

Conclusions Significant differences in reported salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis incidence exist among occupational sectors, with the highest incidence in those persons occupationally exposed to live animals. These differences are only partially reflected in the serology.

  • microbiology
  • epidemiology
  • hygiene / occupational hygiene
  • zoonoses

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  • Contributors All authors conceived and designed the study. JWD performed the data analysis together with LMG. JWD drafted the paper. All authors have substantially contributed to critical interpretation of the results and drafting/revising of the paper.

  • Funding This study was supported by the Dutch Ministry for Public Health, Welfare and Sport via the ‘ZonMw’ (grant number 522004001).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval The serosurvey (PIENTER-2) was approved by the Medical Ethics Testing Committee of the Foundation of

    Therapeutic Evaluation of Medicines (METC-STEG) in Almere (ISRCTN 20164309). This study was performed on deidentified data and no person identifying information was generated.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.