Objective To test cross-sectional associations between urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, lung disease, thyroid problems and liver conditions.
Methods Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations of urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP and 2,4-DCP with prevalence of various medical conditions among 3617 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants from 2007–2008 and 2009–2010. ORs and 95% CIs for each disease were estimated. All regression models were adjusted for urinary creatinine.
Results We observed a monotonically increasing association between quartiles of 2,5-DCP and prevalence of CVD. After adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, participants with the highest versus lowest quartile of urinary 2,5-DCP had an OR=1.84 (95% CI 1.26 to 2.70) (p linear trend=0.006). The association was similar with further adjustment for established clinical CVD risk factors. Higher 2,5-DCP was also associated with prevalence of all cancers combined (ORQ4 vs Q1=1.50 (95% CI 1.00 to 2.26); p trend=0.05) and, in exploratory analyses, with gynaecological cancers (ORQ4 vs Q1=4.15 (95% CI 1.51 to 11.40; p trend=0.01)). No associations were detected between 2,5-DCP and lung diseases, thyroid problems or liver conditions, nor between 2,4-DCP and prevalent disease.
Conclusion In this nationally representative study, higher urinary 2,5-DCP concentrations were associated with greater prevalence of CVD and all cancers combined. Further examination may be warranted to assess whether chronic exposure to 2,5-DCP is associated with incidence of adverse health outcomes.
- cross sectional studies
- endocrine disrupters
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Contributors MRR, PLL and AP designed the analysis; MRR performed the statistical analysis and drafted the first version of the manuscript; all authors critically revised the manuscript and contributed to interpreting the data.
Funding Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number T32HL007779.
Disclaimer The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.