Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Original research
Declining blood lead levels among small-scale miners participating in a safer mining pilot programme in Nigeria
  1. Perry Gottesfeld1,
  2. Gabriella Meltzer2,
  3. Sadie Costello3,
  4. Jane Greig4,
  5. Natalie Thurtle4,
  6. Karla Bil4,
  7. Benjamim Janeiro Mwangombe4,
  8. Manti Michael Nota1
  1. 1 Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, California, USA
  2. 2 College of Global Public Health/ Department of Epidemiology, New York University, New York City, New York, USA
  3. 3 Division of Environmental Health Sciences, UC Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California, USA
  4. 4 Doctors Without Borders Operational Centre Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Perry Gottesfeld, Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA; pgottesfeld{at}


Objectives Our objective was to monitor blood lead levels (BLLs) of miners and ore processors participating in a pilot programme to reduce lead poisoning and take-home exposures from artisanal small-scale gold mining. A medical surveillance programme was established to assess exposures as new methods aimed at reducing lead exposures from ore were introduced in a community in Nigeria where children experienced substantial lead-related morbidity and mortality.

Methods Extensive outreach and education were offered to miners, and investments were made to adopt wet methods to reduce exposures during mining and processing. We conducted medical surveillance, including a physical exam and repeated blood lead testing, for 61 miners selected from among several hundred who participated in the safer mining pilot programme and consented to testing. Venous blood lead concentrations were analysed using the LeadCare II device at approximately 3-month intervals over a period of 19 months.

Results Overall geometric mean (GM) BLLs decreased by 32% from 31.6 to 21.5 µg/dL during the 19-month project. Women had a somewhat lower reduction in GM BLLs (23%) compared with men (36%). There was a statistically significant reduction in log BLLs from baseline to the final test taken by each participant (p<0.001).

Conclusions The observed reductions in GM BLLs during the pilot intervention among this representative group of miners and ore processors demonstrated the effectiveness of the safer mining programme in this community. Such measures are feasible, cost-effective and can greatly improve health outcomes in mining communities.

  • Lead
  • mining
  • blood lead level
  • artisanal small-scale gold mining
  • medical surveillance

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Contributors All authors contributed to the design, data collection, drafting and approved the final version of the manuscript. PG prepared the initial draft, and all others provided inputs and revisions.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available on reasonable request.