Introduction Allergic respiratory diseases, especially rhinitis and asthma, is of relevant importance within emerging occupational diseases in the last decades. It is therefore fundamental monitoring airborne pollen concentrations for allergic disease prevention. Many factors are able to influence airborne pollen concentrations: meteorological parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed), seasonal variations, geographical location, human habits and activity. In this context, for research purposes, we have carried out samplings at two different heights to investigate variations of concentrations of several types of airborne pollen in indoor and outdoor environments according to standard methods of the UNI 11108/2004 and following.
Methods Airborne pollen grains have been collected using a volumetric sampler, Lanzoni VPPS 2000 type Hirst based on impact collection of atmospheric biological particles. Sampling have been performed in one room office using two samplers located to different heights of the suction nozzle (at 1,10 m and 0,6 m) during 2016–2017 and in outdoor environment (urban area) using two same samplers situated to two different level (at ground level in Trajan Forum and at 45 m on ground level on Calandrelli Tower) during 2002–2003. Monitoring stripes were cut and stained with glycerine jelly with fuchsine and then observed with optical microscope to 40X.
Results We observed that pollen concentration are higher at low altitude in both indoor and outdoor samplers. Normally, the outdoor pollen concentration at low level is six or seven times higher than at high altitude, while the indoor pollen is about two time higher.
Conclusion The versatility of sampling at different heights is a very valuable tool to explain how many factors both environmental and personal influence space-time distribution and turbulence related to aerodynamics of these biological particles. The results suggest that pollen gradients at lower level is about five time greater than in indoor respect to outdoor sites.
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