Electromagnetic field (EMF) of power transmission, broadcasting systems, etc. are health risk factor. In case of occupational exposure EMF are purposeful risk factor; for other workers and general public EMF are enforces risk factor, and in case of different emitters (mobile phones, laptops, etc.) use EMF are voluntary risk factor.
The main principle of EMF occupational exposure risks management in Russia is based in concept of EMF ‘cumulative’ effects. Hygienic norms are time dependent, comprising a principle ‘protection by time’. EMF hygienic standardisation in Russia is based on the results of hygienic, clinical-physiological, epidemiological and experimental studies (directed to long-term exposure threshold effects determination), as well as the data of peer rewied scientific publications. Hygienic norms are developed for discrete frequency ranges in account of hygienic safety factor. Today EMF occupational exposure hygienic standards include: hypo-geomagnetic conditions, static electric and magnetic fields, 50 Hz electric and magnetic field, radiofrequency EMF (from 10 kHz to 300 GHz, and special EMF case (ultra broadband pulses). Dose (time-dependence) approach allowed to specify value of EMF permissible levels depending on exposure duration. This approach in radiofrequency range is realised by introduction of ‘power exposition’ (PE) and ‘maximal permissible level’ values.
The progress in EMF hygienic safety problem solving is time dependent norms for frequencies from 3 Hz up to 10 kHz development, as well as attempt of near zone EMF adequate evaluation (for >300 MHz frequency range) principles.
EMF risks management is based in realisation of protection by distance and protection by protective measures and means too. There are developed new methods of overhead and cable extremely high voltage transmission lines 50 Hz magnetic field decrease as well as new regulatory documents on requirements and testing of 50 Hz electric field and radiofrequency EMF individual protective means.