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Respiratory symptoms among search and rescue workers who responded to the 2016 Taiwan earthquake
  1. Chen-Long Wu1,2,
  2. Fan-Yun Lan2,
  3. Bo-Lei Chen2,
  4. Ray Hsienho Chang3,
  5. Wei Hung Chang4,
  6. Shih-Tien Pan5,
  7. Pin-Hui Fang6,
  8. Chien-Hsin Lu6,
  9. Chih-Hao Lin6
  1. 1 Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
  2. 2 Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan
  3. 3 Division of Engineering Technology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA
  4. 4 Department of Psychiatry, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
  5. 5 Department of Emergency Medicine, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan
  6. 6 Department of Emergency Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Chih-Hao Lin, Department of Emergency Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; emergency.lin{at}gmail.com

Abstract

Objectives High respiratory hazards among search and rescue workers (SRWs) emerged after the World Trade Center attacks on 11 September 2001. There have been limited studies on respiratory symptoms among earthquake SRWs. We investigated the respiratory symptoms and the use of respiratory protective equipment among the SRWs who responded to the 2016 Taiwan earthquake.

Methods On 6 February 2016, a 6.4-magnitude earthquake struck southern Taiwan and caused 513 injuries and 117 deaths. During the 9-day field operation, 519 firefighters affiliated with the Tainan City Government Fire Bureau participated in the search and rescue response. A standardised, self-completed questionnaire was used to collect data on demographics, dust exposures, personal protective measures and health outcomes 3 weeks after the earthquake. Descriptive and multivariate analyses adjusting for demographics and exposure variables were performed for new or worsened outcomes.

Results Of the 519 SRWs, 414 (80%) responded to the questionnaire. Of these SRWs, 153 (37%) reported new or worsened respiratory symptoms, with cough (23%) as the leading symptom, followed by rhinorrhoea or nasal congestion (22%) and chest tightness (6%). More than 90% of the symptoms persisted to the third week after the earthquake. The prevalence of new or worsened respiratory symptoms was significantly higher among SRWs with a higher level of exposure to dust. Prior training in response to respiratory pollutants was only 5%.

Conclusions There were significant respiratory hazards among earthquake SRWs. The persistent symptoms and low coverage of training warrant further regular examination and occupational health programmes.

  • respiratory symptom
  • search and rescue
  • earthquake
  • disaster
  • emergency medical technician
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Footnotes

  • Contributors C-LW and C-HLi conceived the study and developed the study protocols. W-HC, F-YL, B-LC, S-TP, P-HF and C–HLu provided technical and administrative support and contributed to acquisition of data. C-LW performed the statistical analysis. C-LW and C-HLi interpreted the study results. RHC provided important critiques. C-LW and C-HLi drafted the manuscript. All authors contributed substantially to its revision. C-HLi is the corresponding author and takes responsibility for the paper as a whole. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Ethics approval The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of the National Cheng Kung University Hospital (B-ER-105–382), Tainan, Taiwan.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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