Introduction Usually night and shift work have been associated with insomnia and fatigue. The current industry model implies the existence of many groups of night workers. For this reason we consider of interest to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the relationship between shift or night work as risk factors for health.
Objectives Evaluate the relationship between shift or night work as a risk factor for health and performance for working.
Methodology Literature review from Pubmed database (01/10/2015) with keywords (“sleep disorder or insomnia”) and (occupational or workplace) and active filters: last 5 years, human, Spanish, English or French.
571 publications were found, of which 141 were selected from title critical lecture (3 independent reviewers, and articles were selected if 2 or 3 of the 3 reviewers agree).
Critical lecture of abstracts for 5 reviewers was performed and 35 of the 141 were selected. 6 of 141 papers were not found.
Results In this review, a relationship between shift and night work with loss of sleep (OR 1.17-4.1) and increased accidents (OR 1.62) is observed.
Time control, sleep 2–3 hours during the night shift, and working maximum 3 consecutive night days, are also seen as protective factors.
Conclusions Night and shift work is related to insomnia and fatigue, which leads to a reduced work capacity and increased accidents; although it seems that it does not lead to premature ageing.
It would be desirable to identify profiles of night workers (owls) and evaluate the effects of the double presence with these types of work, especially in women. There is controversy as to whether these jobs can cause anxiety disorder and/or depression.