Objectives Emotional labour (EL) have been given attention as from the share of service sector in the total industry were increased, and workplace violence (WV) problems such as despising, humiliation, yelling and verbal abuse are closely associated with EL in Korea. Organisational management systems (OMS) for customer satisfaction and poor systems for worker protection have been considered as job stressor in Korea. Based on literature, we created a structural model how EL, WV, and OMS affect job stress, depression and insomnia. This study aims to investigate whether data support the model and how it could be improved.
Methods We selected 50 job categories (among entire 139 categories) frequently dealing with client based on Korean Working Condition Survey 2010 and 2011. A total of 5,152 workers (male: 2,588 female: 2,564) were surveyed. EL, WV, OMS, and job stress measured with scales from the validated questionnaires such as Korean Emotional Labour Scale (K-ELS), the Korean Workplace Violence Scale (K-WVS), and the Korean Occupational Stress Scale Short Form (KOSS-SF). Structural equation modelling was applied.
Results Findings from structural equation modelling provided partial support for the proposed theoretical model that EL (ß=0.327), WV (ß=0.149), and OMS (ß=0.492) affect job stress, then the job stress affect depression (ß=0.219), and insomnia (ß=0.249). The model could be improved by adding direct effects of two determinants (EL and WV) on psychological symptoms, and factors of OMS influenced indirectly via the job stress.
Conclusion The study showed that EL and WV as well as OMS were related with the psychological health. Hence, it is necessary the simultaneous consideration of EL, WV, and OMS when conducting health management strategies for customer-dealing employees.
- Keywords : Emotional labour
- Workplace violence
- Job stress
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