Objective To examine the relation between congenital heart defects (CHDs) in offspring and estimated maternal occupational exposure to chlorinated solvents, aromatic solvents and Stoddard solvent during the period from 1 month before conception through the first trimester.
Methods The study population included mothers of infants with simple isolated CHDs and mothers of control infants who delivered from 1997 through 2002 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Two methods to assess occupational solvent exposure were employed: an expert consensus-based approach and a literature-based approach. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted ORs and 95% CIs for the association between solvent classes and CHDs.
Results 2951 control mothers and 2047 CHD case mothers were included. Using the consensus-based approach, associations were observed for exposure to any solvent and any chlorinated solvent with perimembranous ventricular septal defects (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.6 and OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.8, respectively). Using the literature-based approach, associations were observed for: any solvent exposure with aortic stenosis (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.1) and Stoddard solvent exposure with d-transposition of the great arteries (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.2), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3) and pulmonary valve stenosis (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.8).
Conclusions The authors found evidence of associations between occupational exposure to solvents and several types of CHDs. These results should be interpreted in light of the potential for misclassification of exposure.
- Congenital heart defects
- occupational exposure
- general expertise
- organ system
- disease type
- congenital anomalies
- female reproductive effects and adverse pregnancy outcomes
- exposures and occupational groups
- shift work
- exposure assessment
- hygiene/occupational hygiene
- retrospective exposure assessment
- mortality studies
- risk assessment
- mental health
- aviation medicine
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