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Cross-validation and refinement of the Stoffenmanager as a first tier exposure assessment tool for REACH
  1. Jody Schinkel1,
  2. Wouter Fransman1,
  3. Henri Heussen2,
  4. Hans Kromhout3,
  5. Hans Marquart1,
  6. Erik Tielemans1
  1. 1Business Unit Quality & Safety, TNO Quality of Life, The Netherlands
  2. 2Expert Centre for Chemical Risk Assessment, Arbo Unie, The Netherlands
  3. 3Environmental Epidemiology Division, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Jody Schinkel, TNO Quality of Life, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands; jody.schinkel{at}


Objectives For regulatory risk assessment under REACH a tiered approach is proposed in which the first tier models should provide a conservative exposure estimate that can discriminate between scenarios which are of concern and those which are not. The Stoffenmanager is mentioned as a first tier approach in the REACH guidance. In an attempt to investigate the validity of the Stoffenmanager algorithms, a cross-validation study was performed.

Methods Exposure estimates using the Stoffenmanager algorithms were compared with exposure measurement results (n=254). Correlations between observed and predicted exposures, bias and precision were calculated. Stratified analyses were performed for the scenarios “handling of powders and granules” (n=82), “handling solids resulting in comminuting” (n=60), “handling of low-volatile liquids” (n=40) and “handling of volatile liquids” (n=72).

Results The relative bias of the four algorithms ranged between −9% and −77% with a precision of approximately 1.7. The 90th percentile estimate of one out of four algorithms was not conservative enough. Based on these statistics and analyses of residual plots the underlying algorithm was adapted. Subsequently, the calibration and the cross-validation dataset were merged into one dataset (n=952) used for calibrating the adapted Stoffenmanager algorithms. This new calibration resulted in new exposure algorithms for the four scenarios.

Conclusions The Stoffenmanager is capable of discriminating among exposure levels mainly between scenarios in different companies. The 90th percentile estimates of the Stoffenmanager are verified to be sufficiently conservative. Therefore, the Stoffenmanager could be a useful tier 1 exposure assessment tool for REACH.

  • Exposure assessment
  • cross-validation
  • Stoffenmanager
  • hygiene

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  • Funding The Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; not externally peer reviewed.