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Acute childhood leukaemia and residence next to petrol stations and automotive repair garages: the ESCALE study (SFCE)
  1. P Brosselin1,2,
  2. J Rudant1,2,
  3. L Orsi1,2,
  4. G Leverger3,
  5. A Baruchel4,
  6. Y Bertrand5,
  7. B Nelken6,
  8. A Robert7,
  9. G Michel8,
  10. G Margueritte9,
  11. Y Perel10,
  12. F Mechinaud11,
  13. P Bordigoni12,
  14. D Hémon1,2,
  15. J Clavel1,2,13
  1. 1
    INSERM, U754, IFR69, Villejuif, France
  2. 2
    Université Paris-Sud, UMR-S754, IFR69, Villejuif, France
  3. 3
    AP HP, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, Paris, France
  4. 4
    AP HP, Hôpital Saint-Louis and Hôpital Robert-Debré, Paris, France
  5. 5
    Hôpital Debrousse, Lyon, France
  6. 6
    Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, Lille, France
  7. 7
    Hôpital des Enfants, Toulouse, France
  8. 8
    Hôpital La Timone, Marseille, France
  9. 9
    Hôpital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier, France
  10. 10
    Hôpital Pellegrin Tripode, Bordeaux, France
  11. 11
    Hôpital Mere-Enfant, CHU-Nantes, France
  12. 12
    Hôpital d’Enfants de Brabois, Nancy, France
  13. 13
    French National Registry of Childhood Blood Malignancies (RNHE), Villejuif, France
  1. Correspondence to Jacqueline Clavel, INSERM U754, 16, Avenue Paul Vaillant Couturier, F-94807 Villejuif Cedex, France; jacqueline.clavel{at}


Background: The association between acute childhood leukaemia and residing next to petrol stations and automotive repair garages was analysed in a national registry-based case–control study carried out in France in 2003–2004.

Methods: Population controls were frequency matched with cases on age and gender. Data were collected by standardised telephone interview with the mothers. The latter were asked to report the proximity of their homes to petrol stations, automotive repair garages and other businesses from the conception of the index child to the diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Odds ratios were estimated using unconditional regression models adjusted for age, gender, number of children under 15 years of age in the household, degree of urbanisation and type of housing.

Results: 765 cases of acute leukaemia and 1681 controls were included. Acute leukaemia was significantly associated with residence next to petrol stations or automotive repair garages (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.2) and next to a petrol station (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.0). The OR showed no tendency to increase with duration of exposure. The results were not modified by adjustment for potential confounding factors including urban/rural status and type of housing.

Conclusions: The results support the findings of our previous study and suggest that living next to a petrol station may be associated with acute childhood leukaemia. The results also suggest that the role of low-level exposure to benzene in acute childhood leukaemia deserves further evaluation.

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  • An additional table is published online only at

  • Funding This work was supported by grants from INSERM, Fondation de France, ARC, AFSSAPS, AFSSET and Cent pour sang la vie.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval Ethics approval was obtained for this study (DGS No. 2003/0259).

  • SFCE: Société Française de lutte contre les Cancers et Leucémies de l’Enfant et de l’Adolescent (see appendix 1 for a list of the SFCE investigators of the ESCALE study).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • See Commentary, p 572

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