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Upper airway inflammation in waste handlers exposed to bioaerosols

Abstract

Aims: To examine work associated upper airway inflammation in 31 waste handlers, and to correlate these findings with personally monitored exposure to different bioaerosol components.

Methods: Cell differentials, interleukin 8 (IL-8), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) were examined in NAL (nasal lavage), and swelling of the nasal mucosa was determined by acoustic rhinometry before work start on Monday and the following Thursday. Bioaerosol exposure was determined by personal full shift exposure measurements on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday and analysed for total bacteria, fungal spores, endotoxin, and β(1→3)-glucans.

Results: The increased percentage of neutrophils from Monday (28%) to Thursday (46%) correlated with increases in ECP (rS = 0.71, p < 0.001) and MPO (rS = 0.38, p < 0.05), and showed a close to significant correlation with nasal swelling (rS = −0.55, p = 0.07). The Thursday levels of neutrophils, MPO, and IL-8 were associated with the exposure to fungal spores (range 0–2.0 × 106/m3) and endotoxin (range 4–183 EU/m3) measured the day before, and the median exposure to β(1→3)-glucans (range 3–217 ng/m3), respectively (rS = 0.47–0.54, p < 0.01). Swelling of the nasal mucosa was associated with the fungal spore and β(1→3)-glucan exposure (rS = 0.58–0.59, p < 0.05).

Conclusion: These results are based on a relatively small population, and conclusions must be drawn with care. The results suggested that a moderate exposure to fungal spores, endotoxins, and β(1→3)-glucans during waste handling induced upper airway inflammation dominated by neutrophil infiltration and swelling of the nasal mucosa.

  • household waste
  • bioaerosol exposure
  • acoustic rhinometry
  • nasal lavage
  • ECP, eosinophilic cationic protein
  • EIA, enzyme immunoassay
  • IL, interleukin
  • LPS, lipopolysaccharide
  • MPO, myeloperoxidase
  • NAL, nasal lavage
  • ODTS, organic dust toxic syndrome

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