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Glutathione S-transferases M1-1 and T1-1 as risk modifiers for renal cell cancer associated with occupational exposure to chemicals
  1. L Buzio1,
  2. G De Palma1,
  3. P Mozzoni1,
  4. M Tondel2,
  5. C Buzio1,
  6. I Franchini1,
  7. O Axelson2,
  8. A Mutti1
  1. 1Dept of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
  2. 2Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden
  1. Correspondence to:
 Professor A Mutti
 Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Dept of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma, Italy;


Aims: To investigate the possible interaction between occupational risk factors and genotype for glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 (GSTM1 and GSTT1) in renal cell cancer (RCC).

Methods: One hundred patients with RCC and 200 outpatient controls were enrolled at Parma University Hospital. The polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1-1 (GSTM1) and T1-1 (GSTT1) were investigated by PCR; occupational history was collected by a structured questionnaire.

Results: Subjects with GSTM1 present genotype showed higher risks for RCC, compared to GSTM1 null subjects, if exposed to metals (OR 2.73; 95% CI 0.91 to 8.22 v 1.14; 95% CI 0.46 to 2.82) or pesticides (OR 3.46; 95% CI 1.12 to 10.74 v 1.59; 95% CI 0.48 to 5.34). The GSTT1 present genotype also enhanced the risk (about twofold) of RCC among subjects exposed to solvents and pesticides, compared with those GSTT1 null.

Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms can interact with several occupational exposures to significantly modify the risk of RCC among exposed subjects.

  • occupational exposure
  • genetic susceptibility
  • kidney cancer
  • GSH, glutathione
  • GST, glutathione S-transferase
  • OR, odds ratio
  • PCR, polymerase chain reaction
  • RCC, renal cell cancer
  • TRI, trichloroethylene

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