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The changing psychological contract at work
  1. C L Cooper
  1. BUPA Professor of Organizational Psychology and Health and Deputy Vice Chancellor of the University of Manchester Institute of Science & Technology (UMIST), Manchester, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
 Prof. C L Cooper, Manchester School of Management, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK

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Revisiting the job demands-control model

The old adage that “change is here to stay” epitomises the workplace over the past three decades. And yet research in the field of occupational stress has been rooted in simple two or three dimensional models such as the job demands-control model. The article by de Croon and colleagues1 in this issue is important, even with some of its methodological shortcomings (self report, cross sectional design) and the increasing movement towards more complex stress-strain models,2 by generating and highlighting more occupation specific stressors in the process. This was started by Sparks and Cooper,3 in a range of occupational groups where it was shown that job demand and job control were only two among a range of factors that predicted job related strain outcomes. This is a significant development, because if we are to intervene effectively to minimise or eliminate “organisational sources” of stress, we must have a comprehensive and accurate assessment of the range of stressors that …

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