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Occupational exposure tocis-1,3-dichloropropene: biological effect monitoring of kidney and liver function


OBJECTIVES To investigate the possible effects of occupational exposure to the nematocide cis-1,3-dichloropropene (cis-DCP) on function of the kidney and liver in the starch potato growing region in The Netherlands.

METHODS The study involved 13 commercial application workers exposed tocis-DCP for 117 days, and 22 matched control workers. The inhalatory exposure of the application workers was estimated from biological monitoring data. All workers collected urine and serum samples before, during, and after the fumigation season for monitoring of variables for kidney and liver function. Renal effect variables were alanine aminopeptidase (AAP), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), retinol binding protein (RBP), and albumin (ALB) in urine, and β2-microglobulin (β2M-S) and creatinine in serum (Creat-S). Liver variables were alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TBIL) in serum and the urinary ratio of 6-β-hydroxycortisol to free cortisol (βOHC/COR).

RESULTS The geometric mean exposure of the application workers was 2.7 mg/m3 (8 hour time weighted average (8 hour TWA)); range 0.1–9.5 mg/m3. No differences were found between the values of the renal effect variables or the liver variables of the exposed group and the control group, except a lower urinary ratio of βOHC/COR in the exposed group. This was not considered to be related to the exposure tocis-DCP. No dose-effect relations were found between the exposure indices and the effect variables.

CONCLUSIONS The present study does not provide evidence that occupational exposure tocis-DCP in the starch potato growing region causes adverse effects on the kidney or liver at 8 hour TWA exposure concentrations below 9.5 mg/m3 (2 ppm).

  • cis-1,3-dichloropropene
  • occupational exposure
  • kidney
  • liver

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