OBJECTIVES: The primary study aim was to examine the possible role of cadmium as a risk factor for osteoporosis by determining the bone mineral density (BMD) in workers previously exposed to cadmium. A second objective was to validate the BMD data obtained with a movable instrument. METHODS: 43 workers who were exposed to cadmium for < or = 5 years before 1978 were studied. Cadmium in blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd) were used as dose estimates. The BMD was assessed in the forearm, the spine, and the hip (neck and trochanter) with a dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) instrument. Age and sex matched reference populations were used to compute Z scores, commonly used to assess osteoporosis. RESULTS: The mean forearm Z score was -0.60 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) -1.08 to -0.12) in the group exposed to cadmium. The mean Z score for the spine was -0.47 (95% CI -0.92 to -0.03), for the hip neck -0.40 (95% CI -0.75 to -0.05), and for the hip trochanter -0.22 (95% CI -0.52 to -0.07). The decrease in forearm BMD was correlated with age (p = 0.002) and B-Cd (p = 0.040). No such correlations were found for the other sites. Workers with tubular proteinuria had a lower forearm BMD (p = 0.029) and a lower Z score (p = 0.072) than workers without tubular proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS: There was a suggested dose-effect relation between cadmium dose and bone mineral density. Furthermore, there was a dose-response relation between cadmium dose and osteoporosis. Cadmium may be a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis at lower doses than previously anticipated.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.