A cohort of 4320 uranium miners in West Bohemia who started work at the mines during 1948 to 1959 and worked there for at least four years were followed up to the end of 1990 to determine cause specific mortality risks in relation to exposures in the mines. The miners had experienced high radon exposures, on average 219 working level months during their uranium mining careers, for which detailed measurements were available. They had also been exposed to high arsenic levels in one of the two major mines, and to dust. New follow up methods, not previously used for occupational cohorts in Czechoslovakia, were utilised. By the end of follow up 2415 (56%) of the cohort were known to have died. Overall mortality was significantly raised compared with that in the general population (relative risk (RR) = 1.56, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.50-1.63), with significantly raised risks of lung cancer (RR = 5.08, 95% CI 4.71-5.47), accidents (RR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.34-1.87), homicide (RR = 5.57, 95% CI 2.66-10.21), mental disorders (RR = 5.18, 95% CI 2.83-8.70), cirrhosis (RR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.16-1.94), and non-rheumatic circulatory diseases (RR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.08-1.25). The relative risk of lung cancer was greatest four to 14 years after entry to the mines. Relative risks for homicide and accidents were raised up to 25 years from entry but not after this. Substantial significantly raised risks at 15 to 24 years after entry occurred for cirrhosis, non-rheumatic circulatory diseases,a nd pneumonia and other respiratory infections. Sizeable significantly raised risks at 25 and more years after entry, but not earlier, were present for mental disorders, tuberculosis, and non-malignant non-infectious respiratory conditions. No specific causes showed risks significantly related to age at entry to mining. Risk of lung cancer was significantly positively related to radon exposure, estimated arsenic exposure, and duration of work in the mines, but no other cause was significantly positively related to these variables. The raised risk of lung cancer in uranium miners, which is well established, is related aetiologically to radon exposure, and in the present cohort it may also in part have been due to exposure to arsenic. The raised risks of accidents, tuberculosis, and non-infectious respiratory diseases have also been seen in other uranium mining cohorts, and are likely to reflect the dangerous and dusty working conditions and the confined spaces in which work occurred. The cirrhosis and homicide deaths probably related to the lifestyle associated with mining. The raised risk of circulatory diseases does not seem to be related to radon or arsenic exposure; its causes are unclear. The use of multiple follow up methods was found to be mortality in the cohort.
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