Detailed assessment of the peculiarities of erythrocyte morphology by applying scanning electron microscopy and light-optics methods gives valuable information on the age characteristics, functional failures of the erythrocyte, pathogenesis of anaemia, and also diagnosis. In toxic anaemia caused by the chronic effect of lead and chlorobenzene there is accumulation of aging erythrocytes in blood that are spherical with rough and folded surfaces, fragmented with protuberances, processes, crypt-like hollows, and holes. In lead intoxication there is increased destruction of erythrocytes; anaemia caused by chlorobenzene is mainly due to a decreased entry of the young forms of the erythrocyte into the blood. Light-optics investigation combined with scanning electron microscopy allows a quantitative calculation of erythrocytes with abnormalities of form and surfaces. This may be used as an additional diagnostic test as part of the haematological examination of patients with anaemia.
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