In advanced industrial societies social, economic, and technological changes are accompanied by changing values and attitudes to work, symptomatic of what some see as the transition to a post-industrial era. As a result existing job definitions and traditional forms of organization are being challenged and attempts made to restructure work so that it becomes meaningful and rewarding in the fullest sense, to the individual, to the enterprise, and to society. These range from programmes of job enlargement and job enrichment, within the framework of existing technologies, to experiments in the design of organizations as a whole in which fewer constraints are accepted as given. They entail and require a multidisciplinary approach as well as awareness of and commitment to the underlying values. The possibilities and benefits of restructuring work in these various ways have been demonstrated sufficiently to encourage interest at governmental level as well as by employers and trade unions. There are, however, no simple prescriptions or principles of universal application. Knowledge is still tentative and partial but there is consensus that the search for new ways of dealing with the organization of work and the allocation of resources is of fundamental importance.
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