Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of studies included in the study

Author, year, countrySample under studyTotal sample sizeDesignExposureOutcomeResults
Baumert et al, 26 2014, GermanyGeneral population6817CohortPoor psychosocial working conditions
  • adverse chronobiological/physical working conditions

  • psychosocial working conditions

Job strain
Suicide deathSig+suicide in relation to poor psychosocial working conditions
Sig – in relation to job strain
Berg et al, 27 2006,
Norway
Police3272Cross-sectional surveyPoor psychosocial working conditions
  • serious operational tasks

Social support
Job demands
  • job pressure

Suicide ideationSig – job demand
NS Sig+social support and psychosocial working conditions
Byun et al, 28 2016, KoreaSubway drivers980Cross-sectional surveyJob demands
Effort reward imbalance
  • lack of reward

General job stress
  • occupational climate

Job insecurity
Suicide ideationNS+job demands
Sig+effort reward
NS change general job stress
NS+job insecurity
Carpenter et al, 30 2015,
USA
Professional firefighters315Cross-sectional surveyColleague/supervisor support
General job stress
  • occupational stress

Suicide ideationSig+poor social support
Sig+general job stress
Daglish et al, 33 2015General population1128Cross-sectional surveyJob insecurity
Job strain
Suicide ideationSig+job insecurity
NS – job strain
Frank et al, 31 1999, USAFemale doctors4287Cross-sectional surveyJob control
Job demands
  • work amount

General job stress
  • work stress

Suicide attemptSig+high job demands
Sig+general job stress
Fridner et al, 39 2011, Italy/SwedenMale doctors241 Italy, 456 SwedenCross-sectional surveyColleague/supervisor support
  • discussion about experiences at work

  • support at work

Job control
  • control over work hours

  • influence at work

Role stressors
  • role conflict

Working hours/shift work
Total work hours/week
Night call
Suicide ideationSig+poor social support
Sig+low job control
Sig+general job stress
Law et al, 34 2014,
Hong Kong
General population175Case–controlJob insecurity
  • in danger of losing job/demotion

  • changes in workplaces

Pay changes
  • pay cut

  • pay freeze

Suicide deathNS – job insecurity
NS – pay changes
Loerbroks et al, 14 2016,
Multicountry
Australian general working population, 3923Cross-sectional surveyJob control
Job demands
Effort–reward imbalance
Job strain
Suicide ideationDifference across countries (Sig and NS+) low job control
Difference across countries (Sig and NS+) high job demands
Difference across countries (Sig and NS+) effort reward imbalance
Difference across countries (Sig and NS+) job strain
Chinese nurses,498
Chinese textile workers,824
German industrial workers,721
German physicians,405
Korean metro workers6051
McLean et al,32 2017,
USA
Military personnel with post-traumatic stress disorder366Cross-sectional surveyColleague/supervisor supportSuicide ideationSig+low social support
Milner et al, 35 2017,
Australia
General male population11 862Cross-sectional surveyJob demands
Job control
Effort reward imbalance
Job insecurity
Suicide ideationSig+low job control
Sig – high job demands
Sig+effort reward imbalance
Sig+job insecurity
Milner et al, 36 2016a, AustraliaGeneral population817Cross-sectional surveyJob demands
Job control
Colleague/supervisor support Job insecurity
Suicide ideationNS+job demands
Sig+low job control
Sig+low social support
Sig+job insecurity
Milner et al 15, 2016b,
Australia
General population23 017Case–control studyJob control
Job demands
Suicide deathSig+low job control (males)
NS – low job control (females)
NS – high job demands (females)
Sig+job demands (males)
Ostry et al, 37 2007, CanadaMale sawmill workers28 794Cohort studyJob control
Job demands
Colleague/supervisor support
Suicide attempt
Suicide death
NS+low social support (death)
NS+low social support (attempt)
Sig+low job control (attempt)
NS+low job control (death)
Sig+high job demands (attempt)
Sig+high job demands (death)
Schneider et al, 16 2011,
Germany
General population285Case–control studyColleague/supervisor support
  • satisfaction with colleagues

  • satisfaction with superiors

Job control
  • variety at work (monotonous work)

  • interestingness of work

Job demands
  • time pressure

  • responsibility

General job stress
  • psychic strain through contact with clients

Suicide deathSig+low job control
Sig+low social support
NS+high job demands
NS+general job stress
Sugawara et al,42 2012,
Japan
General population (40–60 years)5878Cross-sectional surveyJob control
Job demands
Suicide ideationSig+low job control
Sig+high job demands
Takada et al, 43 2009,
Japan
General population2834Cross-sectional surveyGeneral job stress
Working hours/shift work
Working time
Overtime work
Suicide ideationSig+general job stress
Takusari et al, 44 2011,
Japan
General population3213Cross-sectional surveyWorking hours/shift work
  • working hour distribution

  • overtime work

  • working schedule irregularity

  • shift work

Suicide ideationSig+job insecurity (males and females)
Sig and NS+working hours/shift work (male and female)
Tsutsumi et al, 17 2007,
Japan
Medical school cohort3125CohortJob control
Job demands
Suicide deathSig+low job control
NS − high job demands
Tyssen et al, 40 2001,
Norway
Medical students371CohortGeneral job stress
Working hours/shift work
  • working hours per week

Suicide ideationSig+general job stress
NS+working hours/shift work
Wall et al, 38 2014,
Sweden
Doctors272Cross-sectional surveyColleague/supervisor support
  • regular meetings to discuss situations at work

  • taken care of in the organisation

  • empowering leadership

Role stressors
  • role conflict

Working hours/shift work
  • hours on night call

  • work demands interfere with family life

Suicide ideationSig+low supervisor support
Sig+general job stress
Sig+working hours/shift work
Yoon et al, 29 2016,
Korea
Service and sales workers1995Cross-sectional surveyJob demands
Job control
Suicide ideationSig+low control
Sig+high demands
  • NS, non-significant; sig +, significant and positive relationship (eg, job stressor associated with increase in suicidality); sig −, significant and negative relationship (eg, job stressor associated with decrease in suicidality).