Table 3

Baseline demographics, symptoms and clinical history of participants

Never handled ENPs (n=55)Ever handled ENPs (n=34)p Value*
Age, mean (SD)37.6 (13.7)31.6 (9.2)0.03
Gender—male, n (%)16 (29.1)23 (67.7)<0.001
Wheeze, n (%)10 (18.2)5 (14.7)0.78
Tightness in chest, n (%)7 (12.7)2 (5.9)0.47
Shortness of breath at rest, n (%)3 (5.8)0 (0)0.28
Shortness of breath after activity, n (%)9 (16.7)7 (21.2)0.78
Asthma, n (%)14 (25.5)1 (2.9)0.01
Atopy, n (%)29 (52.7)13 (40.6)0.37
Smoker, n (%)0.11
 Never49 (89.1)26 (76.5)
 Current0 (0)2 (5.9)
 Past6 (10.9)6 (17.6)
  • *p Value from t-tests for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test.

  • ENP, engineered nanoparticle.