Table 4

Categorical and continuous results of mortality by blood lead category for selected cancers*

CauseNumber of deaths by lead categoryLead category, µg/dLHR†95% CICoefficient for ln max blood lead; p value for test for trend
Bladder cancer
n=96
1520 to <301.020.54 to 1.931.35; p=0.06‡
1430 to <401.400.71 to 2.76
4040+1.861.04 to 3.33
Brain cancer (including benign) n=1112620 to <301.310.79 to 2.171.28; p=0.09‡
1430 to <401.050.55 to 1.99
3340+1.420.83 to 2.43
Larynx cancer
n=39
620 to <301.210.41 to 3.541.54; p=0.09‡
430 to <400.970.28 to 3.35
2140+2.691.07 to 6.76
Lung cancer
n=1333
27120 to <301.391.19 to 1.641.36; p=<0.0001‡
21430 to <401.541.29 to 1.84
50040+1.781.51 to 2.08
Kidney cancer
n=128
2420 to <300.890.54 to 1.451.03; p=0.79
930 to <400.500.24 to 1.03
4240+1.210.74 to 1.97
Stomach cancer
n=195
5720 to <301.621.13 to 2.320.99; p=0.93
1830 to<400.840.49 to 1.44
5340+1.090.70 to 1.67
  • *Bladder cancer ICD9 188–189, ICD10 C67-C68; brain cancer ICD9 191–192, ICD10 C47, C70-C72; larynx cancer ICD9 161, ICD10 C32; lung cancer ICD9 162, ICD10 C33-C34.

  • †Referent is <20 µg/dL maximum blood lead, adjusted for gender, birth year decade, country.

  • ‡Cancers with trends <0.10 for ln(max blood lead), and two a priori cancers (stomach, kidney).